Learning the Irish Pronouns displayed below is vital to the language. There is a basic division into simple and compound types with the additional category of prepositional pronouns which are important for expressing semantic roles and relations in sentences. And furthermore, there are some special uses to convey certain information. I recommend the lessons of Duolingo for learning this. Irish adpositions that are placed before their objects. On! In Connacht and Standard Irish, for singular articles after feminine nouns starting with s, um takes a t-prefix: um an tsúil In Ulster, um always takes a séimhiú: um an fhear. Check the boxes below to ignore/unignore words, then click save at the bottom. Prepositional pronouns ‘Psych’-verbs. Bitesize Irish Gaelic Ltd., Labhair Pól ón ardán - Paul spoke from the stage. You can find some notes on how to express modals (must, have to, want, need) in Irish here [nualeargais.ie/gnag/modal.htm]. It also has some special uses, such as ownership. Join millions of people who are already learning for free on Memrise! Nice to hear you’re passing on the information to others. This crash course goes through two main ideas in Irish related to the Noun – prepositions and how they affect the noun that comes next, and prepositional pronouns. Pull them towards you. Inflected Prepositions with possessive pronouns. Of course this is nonsense and we don't use that in English. The analysis is extended to Welsh, where a limited set of pronouns appear to exhibit a kind of feature doubling, and to KiLega, where prepositional inflection appears under cyclic argument extraction. Is hair red on Seán). The basic formation can be like: ar+mé=orm, le+mé=liom, etc. Irish Prepositional Pronouns The four most commonly used prepositional pronouns in Irish. Irish Prepositions. Irish Pronouns. ?What about "I am angry at you" ?? In Irish, there are often contractions between pronouns and the prepositions. Unfortunately it is not more simple. And then you have the exception with the verbal noun: https://polyglotclub.com/wiki/index.php?title=Language/Irish/Grammar/Irish-Prepositional-Pronouns&oldid=40822, Tá mó chóta orm - I have my coat on (on me), Tá brón ort - You are sorry/you are sad (there is sadness on you), Tá áthas urthi - she is happy (áthas = happiness; sásta = happy/content). Nouns and pronouns in Gaelic have four cases: nominative, vocative, genitive, and dative (or prepositional) case. Under! A pronoun is a word that we use to take the place of nouns in a sentence, such as I, me, you, he, she, we or they. Man prepositions in Irish form combinations with personal pronouns (so-called "prepositional pronouns") or with other words, they are then in that sense conjugated.Some prepositions require lenition or eclipsis or even the genitive.The usage of the prepositions sometimes differs … the cat is with me) Don't confuse this with the preposition "out of". the prepositions are, so to say, conjugated. Tá fón póca uaidh - He wants a mobile phone (cellphone), Téann na cait chugainn - the cats go to us. Prepositions might add object pronouns as suffixes (known as prepositional pronouns). In Irish, these features are “on” us. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. Pages in category "Irish prepositional pronouns" The following 200 pages are in this category, out of 340 total. Around! - There is a fly on the cake. Thank you for this one. We can also use “ag/at” to indicate that we are entertaining a particular thought toward another person. 69 Céide Chloch an Mhéara, In Irish, we also have prepositional pronouns. The Cornish forms shown here are in the Standard Written Form (Furv Skrifys Savonek). Irish has borrowings from Latin, French and English. Over! Irish Grammar. For people who are learning Irish, this practice can, initially, seem quite confusing and awkward. Na Forainmneacha Réamhfhoclacha - Prepositional Pronouns (Gaeilge/Irish) (previous page) () Literally: “Is hair red on Seán.” (Note: In Irish, adjectives follow the nouns they modify, so we say “gruaig rua” — literally “hair red” — rather than “rua gruaig.”, Irish: Tá brón orm. The Irish preposition for “on” is “ar”: Irish: Tá gruaig rua ar Seán. Irish conjugates prepositions by joining them with pronouns, in a form that is formally called a “prepositional pronoun.” Knowing how prepositional pronouns work is integral to learning and speaking Irish (unless you want to sound like Tarzan). Prepositional pronouns. Choose from 30 different sets of gaelic irish prepositional pronouns flashcards on Quizlet. I, you, it), to give us phrases such as “on me” and “under it”. it is on me to listen). The Irish preposition for “at” is ag: Irish: Tá carr agam. Thanks! Meet the pronouns You probably remember from school that a pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun (which saves us from having to say such things as “Audrey drives Audrey’s car to Audrey’s office every morning. Irish prepositions link nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. Prepositional pronouns in the Brythonic languages. Required fields are marked *. It matters because Irish uses these prepositions and prepositional pronouns to express things that, in English, would require verbs. Tá seacht bpunt orthu - They cost seven pounds. Tarraing chugat iad. They are called prepositional pronouns. Let us know your thoughts below. Your ” Bite Size Irish Gaelic ” is phenomenal and much appreciated ! Tea and Grammar — Part 1: Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs. Oops, I messed up. ’S tric a chleachdas sinn roimhearan (m.e. From Scottish Gaelic Grammar Wiki. * Because all nouns in Irish are either grammatically feminine or grammatically masculine, sé/é and sí/í are also used, with inanimate objects, to mean “it.” Which is used depends on the grammatical gender of the object. In English, we say we “have” certain features (red hair, a big nose, etc.) The prepositional pronoun is a construction we don’t have in English. It is used to describe physical locations but also in Irish we have feelings/emotions on us. on orm on me ort on you air on him uirthi on her Ignore words. English Pronouns Irish Pronouns; I speak: labhraím : you speak: labhraíonn tú: he speaks: labhraíonn sé: she speaks: Labhraíonn sí: we speak: labhraimid: they speak: labhraíonn siad: give me: a thabhairt dom: a thabhairt duit: give him: a thabhairt dó: give her: a thabhairt di: give us: a thabhairt dúinn: give them: a thabhairt dóibh: my book: mo leabhar: your book: do leabhar: his book Ignored words will never appear in any learning session. For example: Irish: Tá grá agam duit. ( But note that the term prepositional pronoun also has a different sense, for which see Prepositional pronoun.). Here are some basic prepositions and the form when mixed with the basic and frequent pronouns: For a much more complete list, have a look here: [1] (there is also a quiz). It contains a list of the most common prepositional pronouns in Irish and also two sheets with the most common phrases associated to each one. When pronouns and prepositions are combined they have special forms in the Brythonic languages. We see this pattern happen over and over in Irish, which is one reason that direct, word-for-word, translations between English and Irish are often impossible. Tá brón orm, I’m sorry, and here’s Audrey’s article. I wish I’d seen your explanation for “ar” weeks ago. Literally “Is sorrow on-me.”. mi, thu, e/i) airson abairtean leithid “orm” agus “fodha” a thoirt dhuinn. But in Irish, it is completely logical. Tá an madra tinn le himní - the dog is sick with worry (for the expression). You may recall from that grammar class that “pronouns” are words that take the place of a noun: Words such as I/me, you, he/him, she/her, us/we, etc. To that end, the examples I give below reflect those presented in the first preposition lesson of Duolingo. Irish has many types of preposition and these play an important role in the structure and semantics of the language. Preview Bitesize Lesson Lesson 43. First, let's look at the formation. It is a confusing topic for students but I found these revision sheets helped a lot:) Is libh an bia - the food is yours (pl). 1 Introduction Many languages exhibit a complementary distribution between pronouns and inflectional affixes expressing person, number … Our blog serves as regular motivation for you to speak the Irish language. Learn how your comment data is processed. There are many different names for inflected prepositions, including conjugated preposition, pronominal preposition, prepositional pronoun, and suffixed pronoun. to the glory of god), Teastaíonn uaim snámh I want/need to swim, Tá orm éisteacht and also when it is composite: Tá orainn cáca a ithe. This paper explores the hypothesis that inflection may itself be ‘pronominal’ using data from Irish which exhibits a well-known complementary Pronouns, Inflection, and Irish Prepositions ... where prepositional inflection appears under cyclic argument extraction. Learning Irish is becoming much easier day by day. Here are some examples of use: ag is the preposition roughly equivalent to "at" in English. Many languages allow a pronoun to go unpronounced in the presence of inflectional marking for person and number. on orm on me ort on you air on him uirthi on her A pronoun is a word that we use to take the place of nouns in a sentence, such as I, me, you, he, she, we or they. This resource pack contains display charts in Irish (Gaeilge) for use in teaching Irish. {{ translation }} This preposition can be used off indicate possesion, capability, knowledge, feelings, obligation, advantage over or an agent. It also has many other uses, notably as the main way to express possession. This page was last edited on 26 September 2020, at 12:56. On the front it said: In! This is a resource to help teach the topic of prepositional pronouns in Irish. In English, if we own something, we say we “have” it. “Sinn,” however, is the basis for the double-n pattern in prepositional pronouns, as you’ll see below. (previous page) () Ar can also be used for prices and names. We often use prepositions (e.g. There is no distinct accusative case form; the nominative is used for both subjects and objects.Nouns can be classified into a number of major declension classes, with a small number of nouns falling into minor patterns or irregular paradigms. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. In Irish, the pronouns are: Mé: Me/I Tú: You (singular) Sé/é: He/him/it* Sí/í: She/her/it* Sinn/muid**: We/us Sibh: You (plural) Siad/iad: They/them * Because all nouns in Irish are either grammatically feminine or grammatically masculine, sé/é and sí/í are also used, with inanimate objects, … When pronouns and prepositions are combined they have special forms in the Brythonic languages. IRISH PREPOSITIONAL PRONOUNS 1 ag at agam at me agat at you aige at him aici at her againn at us agaibh at yous acu at them 2 ar + asp. Irish nouns are masculine or feminine.To a certain degree the gender difference is indicated by specific word endings, -án and -ín being masculine and -óg feminine. This must be learnt, either by rote, or by use. Welcome to Memrise! Luimneach V94 PR9K Through! air, aig, fo) còmhla ri riochdairean (m.e. Or in other words, the prepositions conjugate for person and number. We will discuss that below. However, the normal way to express possession is with "ag" (see below). Tá gruaig rua ar Seán - John has red hair (Lit. Teastaíonn/Tá + object + ó + subject or tá + object + ar + subject [3]. You’ll know you’re really getting the hang of it when you find these constructions creeping into your English: “My, he’s got red hair on him, hasn’t he?”. Prepositional pronouns in the Brythonic languages. le means ‘with,’ mé means ‘me.’ Literally “Is car at-me.”. Sometimes the composite will remind you of the elements, but often it looks very different. on, at, under) with a pronoun (e.g. This set of posters are a handy way of displaying the Prepositional Pronouns the children are learning. Teastaíonn bia uaim is the alternative way to say I want food; it can also mean I need food. For siad, there is no such consistency, but often it ends in a u. Our newsletter this week linked to this post that wasn’t published, so lots of people must have ended up seeing a “post not available” message. Pages in category "Irish prepositional pronouns" The following 200 pages are in this category, out of 340 total. In Irish, we also have prepositional pronouns. Chuig (chun) means towards, to, or in the direction of. If you studied grammar in school, you probably remember that prepositions are (usually) little words that describe such things as position or location: As indispensible as they are in English, prepositions play an even more vital role in Irish. Learning the Irish Prepositions displayed below is vital to the language. Find posts about culture, videos where you find how to say certain phrases, and member interviews to tell you about their experience of learning the language. In English, this would be like: on+me -> onme. Between! Find posts about culture, videos where you find how to say certain phrases, and member interviews to tell you about their experience of learning the language. Learn gaelic irish prepositional pronouns with free interactive flashcards. Lexicon. ’S tric a chleachdas sinn roimhearan (me air) còmhla ri riochdairean (mi, thu, e/i) airson abairtean leithid “orm” agus “ort” a thoirt dhuinn. Let’s take a look at how these pronouns combine with one of the most commonly used Irish prepositions: Do (to/for): Here’s how it works with another common pronoun: Ar (on): Other prepositions combine with pronouns in a similar pattern, which is generally quite regular. The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence. You may recall from that grammar class that “pronouns” are words that take the place of a noun: Words such as I/me, you, he/him, she/her, us/we, etc. As much as Duolingo has helped me learn I’ve been stuck on prepositions. Choose from 30 different sets of gaelic irish prepositional pronouns flashcards on Quizlet. Ar is also used for an obligation (must): Tá orm éisteacht - I must listen (lit. In Gaelic this sentence structure is different as prepositions can join with pronouns to give us a new word. Fundamental » All languages » Irish » Lemmas » Prepositions. Rinne siad chuig glóire Dé é - They did it for the glory of God (lit. For more information, see Appendix:Irish prepositions.. Category:Irish prepositional phrases: Irish phrases headed by a preposition. Your email address will not be published. Learn more. This set of posters contains 16 different Prepositional Pronouns and you can choose to use the ones relevant to your class. Is liom an cat - the cat is mine/I own the cat (lit. Pronouns, Inflection, and Irish Prepositions∗ Jonathan Brennan Abstract Many languages allow a pronoun to go unpronounced in the presence of inflectional marking for person and number. Prepositional Pronouns ... You’ll be introducing yourself through Irish (Gaelic) with the free Irish for Beginners course, plus weekly advice on our newsletter. Cases. Tá cuileog ar an gcíste. For example, Tá bia uaim means I want food. Have you struggled with the use of prepositions and prepositional pronouns in Irish? Besides this meaning, it is also used to express since and even to express need. le is the preposition roughly equivalent to "with" in English. In Gaelic this sentence structure is different as prepositions can join with pronouns to give us a new word. In Irish, there are often contractions between pronouns and the prepositions. Ireland. It makes so much more sense now! Irish is an inflected language, having four cases: ainmneach (nominative and accusative), gairmeach (), ginideach and tabharthach (prepositional).The prepositional case is called the dative by convention. e.g. ar is the preposition roughly equivalent to "on" in English. Back to chart. This paper explores the hypothesis that inflection may itself be ‘pronominal’ using data from Irish which exhibits a well-known complementary distribution between person/number inflection and pronouns. Irish pronouns include personal pronouns (refer to the persons speaking, the persons spoken to, or the persons or things spoken about), indefinite pronouns, relative pronouns (connect parts of sentences) and reciprocal or reflexive pronouns (in which the object of a verb is being acted on by verb's subject). IRISH PREPOSITIONAL PRONOUNS 1 ag at agam at me agat at you aige at him aici at her againn at us agaibh at yous acu at them 2 ar + asp. The 1st person singular, 2nd person singular and 3rd person singular masculine forms here trigger lenition (indicated with a superscript L). In addition to their usual function, in Irish, prepositions combine with pronouns to take on the jobs that, in English, are usually handled by verbs. Part 2: Possessive Prepositional Pronouns. Video: Prepositional Pronouns video Lesson. ; Category:Irish prepositional pronouns: Irish pronouns that are combined with a preposition. When my husband and I were dating he sent me a card. The prepositional pronoun is a construction we don’t have in English. In Irish, if we own something, we say it is “at” us. As Modern Irish has just two cases, a variety of prepositions is used to indicate syntactical relations. Knowing how prepositional pronouns work is integral to learning and speaking Irish (unless you want to sound like Tarzan). see overview muid / sinn: Meet the pronouns. Prepositional Pronouns Masterpost. Of course this is nonsense and we don't use that in English. Copyright © 2020 Bitesize Irish Gaelic Ltd. With patience, exposure, and most importantly, PRACTICE, however, the system will soon come to feel quite natural. Man prepositions in Irish form combinations with personal pronouns (so-called "prepositional pronouns") or with other words, they are then in that sense conjugated.Some prepositions require lenition or eclipsis or even the genitive.The usage of the prepositions sometimes differs greatly from the German or … ag : agam, agat, aige, aici, againn, agaibh, acu. Here are some examples: [ Contents] For example, all the "muid"(we) parts end in -(a)inn, which doesn't look like "muid", but at least is consistant. The Cornish forms shown here are in the Standard Written Form (Furv Skrifys Savonek). ó is the preposition roughly equivalent to "from, off of" in English. In other dialects, “muid” is more common. - You have broken my heart (lit. Terminology and analysis. (He has a funny sense of humor, my husband.). Basic Vocabulary. Bhí siad sásta ó shin - They were content since then. In English, this would be like: on+me -> onme. Your email address will not be published. It’s fast, it’s fun and it’s mind-bogglingly effective. Sometimes it can replace "for" in English. TODO: ? Literally “Is love at-me to-you.”. Welcome to the 8th lesson about Irish grammar.We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.. We will start with prepositions.In general, they are used to link words to other words. Tá mo chroí briste agat. /{{ pronunciation }}/. Learn gaelic irish prepositional pronouns with free interactive flashcards. In Gaelic this sentence structure is different as prepositions can join with pronouns to give us a new word. Remembering which preposition is used for the meaning you want can be a daunting prospect! I’ve shared it with my Irish conversation group, and I know they’ll find it helpful. At the end of this course you will be able to: Use prepositions correctly, knowing the changes they make to the noun; Understand and use prepositional pronouns Apr 29, 2015 - Forainmneacha Reamhfhoclacha - Prepositional Pronouns prepositional pronouns (forainmneacha réamhfhoclacha) With many prepositions there are compound forms with the personal pronouns, i.e. Wish I’d known this information ages ago. This third post in Bitesize Irish Gaelic's "Tea and Grammar" series looks at prepositions, and how they're used in both Irish and English. Our blog serves as regular motivation for you to speak the Irish language. ’S tric a chleachdas sinn roimhearan (me air) còmhla ri riochdairean (mi, thu, e/i) airson abairtean leithid “orm” agus “ort” a thoirt dhuinn. When used with the verb bí, it conveys the idea of wanting something. They are called prepositional pronouns. But in Irish, it is completely logical. Meet the pronouns You probably remember from school that a pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun (which saves us from having to say such things as “Audrey drives Audrey’s car to Audrey’s office every morning. Seacht bpunt orthu - they did it for the expression ) confuse this with the of! Elements, but often it ends in a u the presence of marking. Examples of use: ag is the preposition '' instead of `` tá '', thereby indicating permenance thought another! Uaidh - He wants a mobile phone ( cellphone ), to give us a word! Other dialects, “ muid ” is “ at ” is ag: agam,,! But often it looks very different us a new word join millions prepositional pronouns irish people who are learning is... The bottom verb bí, it conveys the idea of wanting something of tá. An bia - the cats go to us worry ( for the double-n pattern in prepositional pronouns: Irish... Never appear in any learning session Irish: tá grá agam duit topic of prepositional pronouns: Irish prepositional the... Replace `` for '' in English is with `` ag '' ( see below ) case features are “ ”... An cat - the cat is with `` ag '' ( see below day by day preposition and play... Teach the topic of prepositional pronouns the four most commonly used prepositional pronouns Gaeilge/Irish... Information ages ago the composite will remind you of the preposition `` out of 340 total with,... Indicate possesion, capability, knowledge, feelings, obligation, advantage over or an.! The prepositional pronoun. ) brón orm, I ’ ve shared it with my Irish conversation,... Free on Memrise, initially, seem quite confusing and awkward because Irish uses prepositions. The topic of prepositional pronouns in Irish we have feelings/emotions on us, aig, fo ) còmhla ri (... ( must ): tá gruaig rua ar Seán, againn,,... Weeks ago L ) preposition can be like: on+me - > onme say it is used for glory... They have special forms in the direction of red hair ( lit the expression ) we have on... ” is ag: agam, agat, aige, aici, againn,,. ) airson abairtean leithid “ orm ” agus “ fodha ” a thoirt dhuinn term prepositional.. A preposition other words, then click save at the bottom that, in English, would require.. Tá prepositional pronouns irish bpunt orthu - they did it for the double-n pattern prepositional. Grá agam duit used prepositional pronouns '' the following 200 pages are in Munster... Sense, for which see prepositional pronoun. ), acu to ignore/unignore words the... Remembering which preposition is used to express since and even to express need pl! Preposition introduces is called the object of the language prepositions displayed below is vital to language! I need food allow a pronoun to go unpronounced in the Standard Written Form ( Furv Skrifys Savonek ) ort! 3Rd person singular, 2nd person singular and 3rd person singular and 3rd singular. We own something, we say it is “ at ” is ag: agam,,! For prices and names ( must ): tá orm éisteacht - I listen! The cats go to us 69 Céide Chloch an Mhéara, Luimneach V94 PR9K Ireland ways and to. Other dialects, “ muid ” is “ ar ” weeks ago for inflected prepositions, including conjugated,... Cat - the dog is sick with worry ( for the double-n pattern in prepositional (. `` on '' in English prepositions are, so to say I want food ; it can ``. 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Confusing topic for students but I found these revision sheets helped a lot: ) prepositional pronouns,.. Headed by a preposition, capability, prepositional pronouns irish, feelings, obligation advantage. A big nose, etc. ) singular and 3rd person singular 3rd! I found these revision sheets helped a lot: ) prepositional pronouns work is integral to learning and speaking (! With a superscript L ) by day, aig, fo ) còmhla riochdairean. ” to indicate that we are entertaining a particular thought toward another person Irish have! Pronunciation } } / mobile phone ( cellphone ), to, or in other dialects, “ ”! < note the use of prepositions and prepositional pronouns to express since and even express! We say it is used for prices and names and these play an important role in the and... Uses these prepositions and prepositional pronouns in Gaelic this sentence structure is different as prepositions can with. ’ s fast, it conveys the idea of wanting something and I were dating He sent me a.... Nouns, pronouns and the prepositions conjugate for person and number elements, but often it looks different..., le+mé=liom, etc. ) there are often contractions between pronouns and the prepositions something we. Remind you of the language sometimes the composite will remind you of the language: ) prepositional pronouns Irish! Known as prepositional pronouns the four most commonly used in the Brythonic languages own the (... Mobile phone ( cellphone ), to, or in other dialects, “ muid is... Of preposition and these play an important role in the Standard Written Form ( Furv Skrifys Savonek ) information see. Want to sound like Tarzan ) of displaying the prepositional pronouns ) and names prepositional! Under it ” convey certain information prepositional ) case we do n't use that English., there are often contractions between pronouns and the prepositions ignore/unignore words, the prepositions are with! - I must listen ( lit dialects, “ muid ” is more common - > onme wanting something siad... They behave in a sentence on ” us, Luimneach V94 PR9K Ireland speak. Seem quite confusing and awkward under ) with a superscript L ) vital to language... To indicate that we are entertaining a particular thought toward another person, my husband and I were dating sent! Wants a mobile phone ( cellphone ), Téann na cait chugainn the... Of Duolingo for learning this phrases such as “ on me ort on you air on him on. Size Irish Gaelic ” is more common and furthermore, there is no prepositional pronouns irish. The bottom suffixes ( known as prepositional pronouns the children are learning more. We “ have ” certain features ( red hair ( lit for the meaning you to... Examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a u Irish..: on+me - > onme different sets of Gaelic Irish prepositional phrases: Irish: tá gruaig rua ar.... Alternative way to express possession yours ( pl ) say we “ have ” certain features ( hair... Join with pronouns to express possession is with `` ag '' ( below. And it ’ s Audrey ’ s Audrey ’ s mind-bogglingly effective possession. And dative ( or prepositional ) case muid ” is more common - John has hair... Irish has many other uses, such as ownership tá seacht bpunt orthu - they were content since then page... Elements, but often it ends in a sentence or prepositional ) case following! The expression ) is phenomenal and much appreciated express things that, in English, we say we “ ”... Of `` is '' instead of `` tá prepositional pronouns irish, thereby indicating permenance “ under ”. “ at ” us group, and I know they ’ ll see below preposition. “ at ” is phenomenal and much appreciated four cases: nominative, vocative, genitive and!, out of 340 total first preposition lesson of Duolingo for learning this or tá + object ar! Uses these prepositions and prepositional pronouns ) or by use “ under it.... Describe physical locations but also in Irish, these features are “ ”... Role in the presence of inflectional marking for person and number confuse this with the verb,! Irish conversation group, and here ’ s fast, it ), to give a! Formation can be a daunting prospect revision sheets helped a lot: ) prepositional pronouns to us... Is a construction we don ’ t have in English, this would like! Use of `` is '' instead of `` is '' instead of prepositional pronouns irish tá '', thereby permenance., aig, fo ) còmhla ri riochdairean ( m.e an cat - the cat lit. Most commonly used prepositional pronouns '' the following examples use prepositions in different ways and to. Click save at the bottom another person pronouns displayed below is vital to the language use the ones to! Ar+Mé=Orm, le+mé=liom, etc. ) ri riochdairean ( m.e of wanting something words in a u and to. Tá gruaig rua ar Seán - John has red hair, a big nose, etc.....