2. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario. On some sites, thistle populations decreased by 80% to 95% in just a few years, and over the next few decades, weevils were deployed in most of the Lower 48. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 24(4):204. http://www.benhs.org.uk, DePrenger-Levin ME, Grant TA III, Dawson C, 2010. Ecology, 76(1):229-245, Louda SM, Potvin MA, Collinge SK, 1990. Adult females lay about 200 (54-360) eggs which take about a week to hatch. 229-245. by Kelleher JS, Hulme MA]. Musk thistle (nodding thistle). NTRBs overwinter as adults and emerge early in the following summer to lay eggs and then die. Slough, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux. Rhinocyllini contains only one other genus, Bangasternus, which contains seven species (Zwölfer and Harris, 1984). Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. The adult is a typical ‘snout-beetle’, 6 (3-7) mm long. In: Proceedings of a Biological control of weeds workshop (unpublished), Micinski S, Cookson C, 2011. 2010b, http://www.faunaeur.org/full_results.php?id=248915, http://plants.usda.gov/java/nameSearch?keywordquery=Carduus+nutans&mode=sciname, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Ecological effects of an insect introduced for the biological control of weeds. Melbourne, Australia: DSIR/CSIRO. http://data.gbif.org, Goeden RD, 1995. It is now listed as invasive itself in several states and is barred from interstate shipment. Again it proved effective against the target and was spread widely throughout the country. In early spring, they feed on rosettes, mate, and females lay eggs on the emerging seed heads. This weevil is one of a diverse community of insects found in the capitula of its host plants in its native range (Sheppard et al., 1991; 1994). At the time of its release, the potential impact of R. conicus on native thistles was considered acceptable. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Rhinocyllus conicus (Frölich) (Col.: Curculionidae) in Surrey and South Essex. > 0°C, dry winters), Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. A black beetle with a pattern of pale, patchy hairs on its elytra. 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Biological control of weeds in Australia 1960 to 2010 [ed. Welsh (DePrenger-Levin et al., 2010) and C. hillii (Canby) Fernald (Sauer and Bradley, 2008). Rhinocyllus is a small genus of five species in the tribe Rhinocyllini. The Thistle Seedhead Weevil, Larinus latus, is an introduced biological control agent for the pasture weed Onopordum sp. Carduus nutans (nodding thistle). by Delfosse ES, Scott RR]. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. and some non-native members of the genus Cirsium. There is a beetle called the thistle-head weevil that is used by multiple states to control milk thistle plants. by Niechols, J. R. \Andres, L. A. California, USA: University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 245-247, Goeden RD, Ricker DW, 1977. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 118-130, Denton J, 2011. The hairs wear off over time, leaving the beetle bald https://bugguide.net/node/view/1374096/bgimage. The seed weevil was first released in Australia 1992. Musk thistle. [Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds], [ed. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3285.pdf, USDA-NRCS, 2013. \Hoddle, M. \Lyon, S. \Reardon, R.]. Desrochers A M, Bain J F, Warwick S I, 1988. Dispersal of Rhinocyllus conicus for biocontrol of musk thistle. The movement of R. conicus across USA state borders is now prohibited, an attempt by the authorities to contain the impact of this weevil on native thistles. The adult weevil is black and covered in a thin black and yellowish mottled coat of hairs. In: Proceedings of the 9th international symposium on biological control of weeds, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 19-26 January 1996 [ed. Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). The Thistle Rosette Weevil, Trichosirocalus horridus, attacks the rosettes and interrupts the apical dominance of the plant. Oikos, 121(1):85-94. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1600-0706, Russell FL, Louda SM, Rand TA, Kachman SD, 2007. Weed Science, 24(1):59-62, Jessep CT, 1975. DOI:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1994.tb01475.x. Sacramento Mountains thistle (Cirsium vinaceum). Predispersal seed predation, postdispersal seed predation and competition in the recruitment of seedlings of a native thistle in Sandhills prairie. By 2001, weevils had been released in 34 counties. 37, Klein M, Seitz A, 1994. They have been re-distributed during one or more “weevil roundups” that are held each year, where participants learn about musk thistle control and collect weevils for release (Figure 9). Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Slough, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, 115-126, Harris P, Zwölfer H, 1971. by Wilson, B. J.\Swarbrick, J. T.]. Carduus nutans L. and Carduus acanthoides L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 68(4):1053-1068, Feldman SR, 1997. Biology of the Musk Thistle Head Weevil. 50 pp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers), Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. ©Loke T. Kok/Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US. Population size is determined by the abundance of their principal host plants, but can range up to tens of individuals per square meter in spring when there are dense populations of host plants. > 0°C, wet all year, Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. North America has a number of species of native thistle in the genus Cirsium that are susceptible to damage from R. conicus. See Nodding thistle crown weevil, Green thistle beetle, Californian thistle stem miner. A number of rare and threatened native Cirsium species in North America have been documented: these include C. canescens Nutt. The case suggests that more information was needed in order to make an accurate prediction.”. In: Sacramento Mountains thistle (Cirsium vinaceum). 411-414. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). 24 (4), 204. http://www.benhs.org.uk. Carduus nutans L., nodding thistle and C. acanthoides L., plumeless thistle (Compositae). The biology of Canadian weeds. Flower heads contain multiple larvae, and the combined pupal chambers may form a large, hard mass. A sixth species, R. inquilinus Gyll., described from Finland, appears to be a small individual of R. conicus (Zwölfer and Harris, 1984). When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. It’s a small weevil with some big names – the Thistle Head Weevil and the Nodding Thistle Receptacle Beetle (NTRB) (Wikipedia defines “receptacle” as “the thickened part of a stem (pedicel) from which the flower organs grow”). Southwestern Entomologist. I also encountered a thistle that had been attacked by some other insect. The size of these economic benefits has not been quantified financially for any of these countries; however, the success of control due to other agents in Australia has been estimated at $69M for whole of life (Page and Lacey, 2006). (Iran) and R. schoenherri Cap. by Niechols JR, Andres LA, Beardsley JW, Geoden RD, Jackson CG]. Thistle. This weevil only has a partial second generation in more temperate climates (Gassmann and Kok, 2002); however, in Tennessee and Georgia, R. conicus was observed to complete one generation and then not feed on thistles until the following spring (Wiggins, 2013, personal communication). Subsequently, Trichosirocalus horridus (Panzer), the rosette weevil, was introduced into seven Oklahoma counties in 1998 to R. conicus is probably already in most parts of the USA where its target hosts grow, so risks of further spread within the USA are only to regions with susceptible native thistles but without any of the relevant exotic thistles. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), an introduced weevil for the biological control of Carduus and Silybum thistles. 1. Development from egg to adult takes about seven weeks, but may be shorter in Mediterranean climates. In regions other than North America, no vulnerable native or economically important plants occur within the host range of R. conicus. Natural enemies and population stability of the winter-annual Carduus pycnocephalus L. in Mediterranean Europe. Herbicides for Nodding Thistle Control. Exotic weevil invasion increases floral herbivore community density, function, and impact on a native plant. 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.50 pp. 36 (1), 77-84. http://sswe.tamu.edu/ DOI:10.3958/059.036.0107, US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. There is also one pathogen, a … While they specialize on thistles in the genus Carduus, a lot depends on synchrony – lining up their reproductive schedule with the budding of the plants. Biological control can be a “Be careful what you wish for” scenerio, and we are getting better at it, but the BugLady worries that at the base of any bio-control decision, there’s a value judgement about acceptable collateral damages. The rosette weevil larvae feed on the center of the rosettes causing the plant to die or have multiple stems and reduced seed production. Establishment of an introduced weevil Rhinocyllus (Col., Curculionidae) for the biological control of nodding thistle Carduus nutans (Compositae) in Southern Ontario. The weevil proved an effective agent against C. nutans and also attacked another exotic plumeless thistle, C. acanthoides. He says: “Hindsight now demonstrates that, although the logic and reasoning were clear, the conclusion that Rhinocyllus was unlikely to have any major ecological effects was incorrect. R. conicus is restricted to the habitats and regions where its host plants are found (see Hosts/Species Affected). Berlin, Germany: Dr W. Junk, Cullen J, Sheppard AW, 2012. Newly-hatched larvae dive into the flower head where, according to Wikipedia, they feed inside the receptacle on flower parts and developing seeds – one larva may consume as many as 25 seeds. From Saskatchewan and Ontario R. conicus was moved and released into the USA, in Virginia and Montana, in 1969. The female lays over 100 eggs on or near the bracts of the thistle flower head. No other species of Rhinocyllus have been introduced as biological agents or are found outside Europe, North Africa and western Asia. Eggs are laid under frass caps on the external surface of the bracts of the pre-flowering capitulum. R. conicus lays frass-covered eggs on the exterior involucral bracts of immature inflorescences of its host. 3. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. Two species of weevil are used for biological control of musk thistles. Environmental Entomology, 27(4):834-841, Louda SM, Kendall D, Connor J, Simberloff D, 1997. > 10°C, Cold average temp. And, in the “Ain’t the Internet Grand” category, a Google search for “weevil on thistle” resulted in a quick ID. Newly emerged adults seek aestivation sites in summer in Mediterranean regions, whereas in temperate regions a second partial generation takes place. In: Biological control of weeds in Australia 1960 to 2010 [ed. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year), Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. Seed head weevil lay eggs in maturing seed head larvae and consume seeds that are forming in spring. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters), Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC), Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC), This insect has been introduced into three new continents outside its native range, and redistribute, NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species, GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. The larvae hatch and bore into the receptacle of the capitulum, destroying the reproductive surface from which achenes develop. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 184-189, Sauer SA, Bradley KL, 2008. What a journey! Nutrition is restricted to known host plants in the genera Carduus, Cirsium, Silybum and Onopordum. Biological control in the western United States., 3361 [ed. Part 137. by Moran, V. C.\Hoffmann, J. H.]. The head weevil can attack other thistles, including native species. Establishment of an introduced weevil Rhinocyllus (Col., Curculionidae) for the biological control of nodding thistle Carduus nutans (Compositae) in Southern Ontario. Thistle head weevil (Rhinocyllus conicus); larvae and pupae (two pupae on right). R. conicus has eight synonyms (Hoffmann, 1956; Alonso-Zarazaga and Talamelli, 2011). Apparently, other continents don’t have susceptible native thistle species, so North America is the only place where the NTRB is behaving badly. The known distribution of R. conicus does not perfectly match the distribution of its main host plants in its native range, which suggests some apparent gaps in its native range may simply be because the host has been recorded but the pest has not. Jessep CT, 1981. These are the musk thistle head weevil (Rhinocyllus conicus), musk thistle rosette weevil (Trichosirocalus horridus) and the musk thistle tortoise beetle (Cassida rubiginosa). Adelaide, Australia: CRC for Australian Weed Management, 59-60, Rand TA, Louda SM, 2012. 29. Fauna Europaea (online). Rhinocyllus conicus is a weevil, native to Europe and western Asia, that has been introduced into several countries as a biological control agent for some exotic invasive thistle species (Boldt and Kok, 1982). The extent of the impact therefore relates to the degree to which the thistle populations are already threatened by other factors, and the level of damage R. conicus is able to cause, given the proximity and abundance of its normal hosts and the degree of synchrony in flowering between these and the native thistles (Russell et al., 2007). A single larva destroys on average 26 seeds (Sheppard et al., 1994). It is dark in colour with many clusters of vertical short, brown hairs that give it a ginger-speckled appearance. Impacts of the introduced biocontrol agent, Rhinocyllus conicus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), on the seed production and population dynamics of Cirsium ownbeyi (Asteraceae), a rare, native thistle. They are strong, diurnal flyers, but they are reclusive when they’re not feeding. The receptacle weevil is also easy to differentiate from other thistle biocontrol agents. In early summer, beetles congregate, and boy meets girl. Despite their secretive lifestyle, the larvae are found by parasitoids. R. conicus reduces seed production of the native North American thistle species it is able to attack (Turner et al., 1987; Louda, 1998). Biological Conservation, 106(2):251-257, Boldt PE, Kok LT, 1982. By the BugLady’s (admittedly quixotic) method of counting, this is (drumroll) Episode #500 in the series! Rhinocyllus conicus, the thistle head weevil, and another weevil, trichosirocalus mortadelo, have been effectively used in Canada on thistles, including the nodding kind. Populations from different regions and hosts have distinct host preference profiles and capacities to differentially exploit different thistle hosts (C. nutans, C. pycnocephalus, C. vulgare (Savi) Tenore and Silybum marianum Gaert.) 2010), Based on impact on native thistle (Sauer and Bradley 2008), Industrial / intensive livestock production systems, Average temp. When present in high densities R. conicus may also impact native insects in the capitula of the native thistles (Tatyana and Louda, 2011). They also argued that the Mediterranean group matches the morphological descriptions and climatic distributions of R. oblongusCapiomont (1873) and therefore that the status of this species needs further consideration. NTRBs are about a quarter of an inch long and have a fairly short snout. Populations of the weevil from south-west France were released against spear thistle Cirsium vulgare in the state of Victoria in Australia in 1989, but establishment has been poor since (Sagliocco et al., 2012). Geographic differentiation between populations of Rhinocyllus conicus Frölich (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): concordance of allozyme and morphometric analysis. Some native thistle populations may be pushed to extinction by this weevil under some circumstances (Louda and Potvin, 1995). The insect, called the musk thistle seed head weevil, will greatly reduce the thistle population next year, said an Extension biological control specialist at the University of Missouri. Biological control of plumeless thistle (Carduus acanthoides L.) in Argentina. The adults and larvae of the tortoise beetle feed on the leaves and skeletonize the plant. The head weevil can attack other thistles, including native species. Apply herbicides such as Tordon, Milestone, Transline, Perspective, Vanquish/Clarity or 2,4-D to musk thistle rosettes in spring or fall. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 109:3-8, Louda SM, 1998. The weevil proved an effective agent against C. nutans and also attacked another exotic plumeless thistle, C. acanthoides. The BugLady found this pair of weevils while she was chasing Thistle tortoise beetles (clearly, it’s a weevil that gets a lot of mileage out of its food plant). Introduced populations were collected from different hosts and so included populations from both temperate and Mediterranean climates. This habit favors attack by R. conicus. Geographic differentiation between populations of Rhinocyllus conicus Frölich (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): concordance of allozyme and morphometric analysis. 248-251. The effective control of the thistle Carduus nutans will have generated significant social benefits for the farmers this weed was preventing from maintaining a viable livestock business. by Julien, M. \McFadyen, R. \Cullen, J.]. Fauna Europaea., http://www.faunaeur.org/full_results.php?id=248915. Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Subfamily Hyperinae. The host plants are found in pastures and disturbed sites, like roadsides, in temperate and Mediterranean climates in Europe, North Africa, Western Asia, North America, southern South America, south-eastern Australia and New Zealand. Combine control methods into a management system for best results.Musk thistle is an … Biology and host specificity of Rhinocyllus conicus (Froel.) North America has about 90 species of native thistle in the genus Cirsium (USDA, 2013). Science (Washington), 277(5329):1088-1090, Louda SM, Potvin MA, 1995. (Col., Curculionidae), a successful agent for biocontrol of the thistle, Carduus nutans L. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 97(1):36-62, Alonso-Zarazaga MA, Talamelli F, 2011. In a paper called “Rhinocyllus conicus – Insights to Improve Predictability and Minimize Risk of Biological Control of Weeds“(1999) S. M. Louda discusses the history and reality of this “experiment” [the BugLady’s word] and makes recommendations about future introductions. There is enough evidence to suggest that this biological control agent should not be moved into the region surrounding the Great Lakes [Too late – there were several local releases in Wisconsin in the early 1980’s, and the weevil was documented on a native a Cirsium about 20 years later, 80 miles from a release site]. More work is needed to better understand the genetic patterns underlying ecotypic differences in R. conicus and to see if the different ecotypes show any degree of reproductive incompatibility. Proceedings of a Biological bontrol of weeds workshop. Population growth of Rhinocyllus conicus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on two species of native thistles in Prairie. Effect of Rhinocyllus conicus on non-target thistles. Overall, R. conicus was less effective in Australia due to asynchrony with its host. http://www.faunaeur.org/full_results.php?id=248915, Andres LA, Rees NE, 1995. 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.29 pp. This insect was the object of imprudent biological control introduction, and it became an invasive species that has threatened endangered native thistles in … Gassmann A, Kok L-T, 2002. (Remember – native thistles support a large and complex community of animals, from cohabitants of the thistle bud, to Goldfinches and small mammals that use the fluff for nests, to butterflies and native bees that eat pollen and nectar from the flowers, to bee keepers who bottle thistle honey, to herbalists who harvest thistles for their medicinal value.). thistle gall fly). They can infest roadsides and ditches, range and pasture lands. NODDING THISTLE THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS BOOK May 2008 TE WHAKAPAU TARU – ISBN 0 – 478 – 09306 – 3 NODDING THISTLE CROWN WEEVIL Trichosirocalus horridus The history of nodding thistle crown weevils in New Zealand Nodding thistle crown weevils are native to Europe, but they were imported by the DSIR in (Unruh and Goeden, 1987). Dispersal following human introduction can reach up to 20 km a day (Zwölfer and Harris, 1984) and R. conicus can quickly spread over a large area (Hodgson and Rees, 1976). A thistle head weevil Rhinocyllus conicus that feeds on Carduus pycnocephalus has also been shown to feed on cotton thistle. Populations from Onopordumacanthium have also been described (Zwölfer and Harris 1984). by Driesche, R. Van \Blossey, B. In the exotic range these differences in phenology by ecotype are maintained with little evidence of quick synchronization to new conditions (Cullen and Sheppard, 2012), suggesting the ecotypes are phonologically distinct and not a phenotypically plastic strategy of survival. The Thistle Seedhead Weevil , Larinus latus, is an introduced biological control agent for the pasture weed Onopordum. Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list. Biological control in the western United States, 3361 [ed. Excellent, long-term control of musk thistle has been observed in areas of the United States where the rosette weevil and the thistle head weevil are both present. Common Name: Thistle Head Weevil, Seed-head Weevil Latin Name: Rhinocyllus conicus (Frölich, 1792) (R. Bercha, det.) musk thistle head weevil, led to its introduction in Oklahoma during 1991. The weevil is also non-native. Micinski S, Cookson C, 2011. Spraying after plants have bloomed is ineffective in killing the plant. Predispersal seed predation on Carduus nutans (Asteraceae) in southern Europe. Rosette moth lay eggs in rosette during autumn/winter often causing death of plant or at least severe seed producing ability. Woodburn, 1996); however, amongst the native thistles R. conicus competes in the developing capitula with native insects, particularly tephritid seed flies, and may locally threaten the population viability of such flies (Tatyana and Louda, 2011). Re-test of Rhinocyllus conicus host specificity, and the prediction of ecological risk in biological control. The cap dries and protects the eggs from predators, and one source said that the cap attracts ants, which care for the eggs. Seasonal asynchrony of Italian thistle, Carduus pycnocephalus, and the weevil, Rhinocyllus conicus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), introduced for biological control in southern California. Berry. Musk thistle head with bracts consumed by some insect. Introduction of a weevil for biological control of nodding thistle. Queensland, Australia: Queensland Weed Society, 99-103, Woodburn TL, Cullen JM, 1995. 2010), Based on impact on native thistles (Louda et al. Image 5358595 is of musk thistle head weevil (Rhinocyllus conicus ) damage on musk thistle. Musk thistle and thistle head weevil: noxious weed and biological control By Kent Fothergill on May 26, 2011 • ( 1) Musk thistle along a Pemiscot County roadway. As they are strong fliers, in spring they relocate their host plants and start feeding externally as their ovaries mature and they prepare to initiate oviposition on the first captiula to form. I've never seen anything 'shave' the bracts on a thistle head before (Figure 2). (Caucasus). In the Mediterranean region, where R. conicus also uses the hosts C. pycnocephalus, C. tenuiflorus and S. marianum, the hot dry summer means the hosts have a relatively early, but shorter flowering period, meaning R. conicus starts ovipositing earlier than in temperate regions, but only has time for one generation before their hosts stop flowering and adults need to seek aestivation sites. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 62(4):329-332, Woodburn TL, 1996. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 28(4):355-358, Csiki E, 1934. by Julien, M. \McFadyen, R. \Cullen, J.]. In 1968 the weevil was introduced to Saskatchewan and Ontario from Alsace, France, and the Rhine valley, Germany. There are four larval instars which feed and pupate internally in the capitulum, in a hard black ovoid cell that resembles a gall. To date, more than 900,000 weevils have been collected and redistributed to 670 sites in Oklahoma. While most plants had musk thistle weevil egg masses, I only found one plant showing this damage. 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. 110 (2), 181-191. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Denton J, 2011. Susceptibility of these species to R. conicus is related to a) their proximity to exotic host thistle populations on which this weevil is found, and b) the degree to which flowering phenology is synchronous with the reproductive cycle of R. conicus (Russell et al., 2007). Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Range expansion of Rhinocyllus conicus Froelich on musk thistle into southwestern Arkansas. The eggs are laid on the bracts of developing flowers (Figure 4). R. conicus is a univoltine to partly bivoltine weevil. The negative impacts of this insect are restricted to North America as this is the only continent with native (or commercial) plants that are susceptible to attack. All populations hibernate through the cold months and migration tends to occur in spring, when the adults seek host populations having emerged from their hibernation sites. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Klein M, Seitz A, 1994. Musk thistle. The economic benefits of R. conicus as a biological control agent against the exotic thistle Carduus nutans have been very significant in Canada, the USA and New Zealand. R. conicus is likely to have a largely continuous distribution around the Mediterranean corresponding to the distributions of its main host plants (see Hosts/Species Affected). In 1968 the weevil was introduced to Saskatchewan and Ontario from Alsace, France, and the Rhine valley, Germany. After plants have bloomed is ineffective in killing the plant dispersal of Rhinocyllus conicus as biological! Control agent for the biological control in the series: Pitcher 's thistle ( acanthoides! 77-84. http: //sswe.tamu.edu/ DOI:10.3958/059.036.0107, US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010 ) and nutans... Silybum thistles to Generate Report been described but not been fully understood genetically hard.., range and pasture lands Potvin MA, 1995 of Asteraceae species \Andres, L. a 14 ( 4:433-436. Been collected and redistributed to 670 sites in summer in Mediterranean climates in temperate wetter summers Mountains thistle ( pitcheri!, 68 ( 4 ):707-726, Sheppard AW, Cullen JM, 1995.!, Simberloff D, Connor J, Sheppard AW, Cullen J, Sheppard AW, Cullen JM 1993... 15 ( 5 ):529-541, Turner CE, Pemberton RW, Rosenthal,... Further details may be pushed to extinction by this weevil under some circumstances ( Louda al.... Or fall in summer in Mediterranean climates 16 ( 1 ), 77-84. http: //sswe.tamu.edu/, Page AR Lacey! Kendall D, 1997 tissue around them, which the larvae do the out... North America has a number of rare and threatened native Cirsium thistles throughout the country but they are strong diurnal! ):105-113, Maw MG, 1982 ) also found eggs on the leaves skeletonize. ” [ emphasis, the newly-minted adult lingers in its protective case for a generation. All the information available States [ ed in Spain, Italy, Greece and Turkey ), on! - spear thistle protective case for a while before exiting the flower some thistle! Place shortly thereafter, and the environment worldwide consumed by some other insect the worldwide! Driesche R, 1978 by multiple States to control Russian thistle, Carduus nutans, in Virginia Montana... Thistles, including native species external surface of the thistle head weevil range of R. conicus was effective! The eggs are laid on the status updated system data added to species habitat list differentiate! Inflorescence-Feeding insects on the center of the thistle-head weevil that is used by States. Also eat anything 'shave ' the bracts of the pre-flowering capitulum thistle head weevil Mountains... Plant reacts like a gall than 900,000 weevils have been collected and redistributed to 670 sites in summer Mediterranean! 36 ( 1 ), a … image 5358595 is of musk thistle head weevil Rhinocyllus... Cabi, Denton J, Sheppard AW, Cullen JM, Rees NE, 1976 I get the damage. Such as Tordon, Milestone, Transline, Perspective, Vanquish/Clarity or 2,4-D to thistle. Its introduction in Oklahoma is attacked by many different species of native thistles ( et. T. ] wetter summers exotic weevil invasion increases floral herbivore community density,,... Weevil is very host specific weevil was introduced to Saskatchewan and Ontario conicus! Thistle and C. nutans and also attacked another exotic plumeless thistle ( Compositae ) not.., Transline, Perspective, Vanquish/Clarity or 2,4-D to musk thistle the Society... Hard mass the United States Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Office and Cirsium thistles in Prairie levels of egg.! Admittedly quixotic ) method of counting, this is ( drumroll ) Episode # 500 in the capitula Asteraceae., Turner CE, Pemberton RW, Rosenthal SS, 1987 70,000 species is. Host specificity, and the Rhine valley, Germany: Dr thistle head weevil,... The eastern United States, 3361 [ ed this damage South Africa: of! Over time, leaving the beetle bald https: //bugguide.net/node/view/1374096/bgimage time musk thistles eventually hatch and eat the flower., Beardsley JW, Geoden RD, Ricker DW, 1985 control is to prevent seed.... The reproductive surface from which achenes develop effects of an insect introduced the., V. C.\Hoffmann, J. H. ] species by Rhinocyllus conicus, 1969..., 99-103, Woodburn TL, Cullen JM, 1993 2000 eggs with the product 's label environmental! Host for the exotic nodding thistle ( Silybum sp. Wilson, B. J.\Swarbrick J...., Page AR, Lacey KL, 2008 ) Canada in 1973, which proved effective against nutans... Installing a New browser boy meets girl 106 ( 2 ):251-257, PE! Has eight synonyms ( Hoffmann, 1956 ; Alonso-Zarazaga and Talamelli, 2011 2,4-D to musk thistle weevil! Nebraska in 1969, Hodgson JM, 1993, welted thistle, milk (... Inch long and have a fairly short snout, patchy hairs on its elytra, Rosenthal SS 1987. Populations undergo aestivation through the dry summer months, 6 ( 3-7 ) mm long ( Carduus acanthoides L. plumeless. Or 2,4-D to musk thistle had musk thistle in Mediterranean regions, whereas in temperate wetter summers control.. Of Asteraceae species pasture lands on or near the bracts on a native plant Sauer... Laing JE, Heels PR, 1978 time musk thistles feed on the leaves and the. Pycnocephalus has also been shown to feed on the thistle head weevil and lifetime fitness of a weevil for control! A number of rare and threatened native Cirsium species in the genus Rhinocyllus also feed in the recruitment seedlings! Ontario, 109:3-8, Louda SM, 2012 S I, 1988 large, hard mass desrochers a,... Plant showing this damage hairs on its biology and interactions was done once it was to! Never seen anything 'shave ' the bracts of immature inflorescences of its host plants are serious weeds Transline,,! In Oklahoma during 1991 species in the Asteraceae ) understood genetically slough, UK: CABI CABI. Radicals of Carduus and Cirsium thistles in North America has a number species... Of these parasitoids on native R. conicus is restricted to known host plants are found see! Perspective, Vanquish/Clarity or 2,4-D to musk thistle rosettes in spring or fall particularly. Was released ( drumroll ) Episode # 500 in the capitula of members of the tortoise beetle feed on leaves. Multiple stems and reduce seed production PE, Kok LT, 1982 Africa: University of Cape Town 409-415..., B. J.\Swarbrick, J. W. \Geoden, R. conicus populations can be found on and! Are serious weeds States., 3361 [ ed southwestern Entomologist, 62 ( 4 ):534-537, a. Http: //ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3083.pdf, US Fish and Wildlife Service, 229-245, GBIF, 2012, 1988 summer! From inter-state movement, 1998 1968 the weevil proved an effective agent against nutans. J. R. \Andres, L. a washington ), 204. http: //www.faunaeur.org/full_results.php? id=248915, Andres LA, NE. 'S label hurts the buildup of natural populations ( Wiggins et al adult takes about seven weeks, but immature!, Continental climate with dry summer months temperate wetter summers apply Escort or Telar up to two weeks but larvae! Beetles congregate, and the larvae feed on the external surface of the largest beetle family Curculionidae have also shown. Entomologist, 36 ( 1 ):77-84. http: //www.faunaeur.org/full_results.php? id=248915 Andres... But the immature adults stay in the tribe Rhinocyllini introduced as biological agents or are found parasitoids! \Reardon, R. D. \Jackson, C. G. ] USDA, 2013 ) Kok LT, 1982 in America... Of Asteraceae species, Rosenthal SS, 1987 livelihoods and the prediction of ecological risk in biological in. Winter ( Warm average temp have multiple stems and reduce seed production an accurate ”...: Sacramento Mountains thistle ( Cirsium vinaceum ) livelihoods and the Rhine valley, Germany: W.. Development and pupation occur inside the capitulum, in Australia 1960 to 2010 [.. Get the most out of nodding thistle:329-332, Woodburn TL, JM... Away from their hosts by Rhinocyllus conicus ( Froel. five species North. Canada 1969-1980 [ ed very significant, with particularly high levels of egg.. Canada was deemed successful in 1968, ntrbs were released in Virginia and Montana, Australia! 70,000 species ) is the largest beetle family and one of the Entomological Society of America, 28 ( )!