S. pyogenes produce toxins that destroy body cells, specifically red blood cells and white blood cells. Erythrasma develops in areas where skin touches skin, such as the armpits, groin, or between the toes. Microbial colonization on the skin adds to the skin's defense against potentially pathogenic organisms. With your help, we can update and expand the website. The complement system may, in part, be responsible for maintaining a diverse set of microbes on our skin and keeping our skin healthy, … skin provides many niches in which large populations of microbes are subjected to variable ecological pressures including humidity, temperature, pH, and the composition of antimicrobial peptides and lipids. Severe non-diphtherial infections are associated with surgical implant devices and can cause meningitis and urinary tract infections. Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and many animals. To learn more about how microbes affect our digestive system, click here. Nat Rev Microbiol 2011; 9: 244–53. These bacteria contribute to the development of acne as they proliferate due to excess oil production and clogged pores. Other Gram-negative bacteria are not considered part of the normal skin micobiota, as the relatively low humidity and high osmotic pressure of the skin are unfavourable for their growth. Our skin gradually changes over the years, for instance due to ageing or exposure to the weather. DermNet NZ does not provide an online consultation service. Evolved over thousands of years, the human microbiome consists of many distinct types of colonies, depending on the location and condition of the microenvironment. May 28, 2009 -- Your skin is crawling with hundreds of kinds of bacteria, NIH researchers find. They can adhere to various types of surfaces, including medical equipment. DermNet provides Google Translate, a free machine translation service. As such, S. epidermidis commonly cause infections associated with implanted medical devices such as catheters, prostheses, pacemakers, and artificial valves. How the babies are conceived also contributes to their future human microbiome. Demodex mites (Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis) and the fungus Malasezzia also congregate in the oily areas of the face. These are mainly Gram-positive bacteria, including clostridia in the perineal area. Skin is a barrier that's one of the first lines of defense against harmful microbes. The sebaceous sites on the head and torso are dominated by species of bacteria that like fatty environments. The skin microbiome. Malasezzia are commonly found all over the body except for the feet. In it’s rightful home on your skin, it secretes pseudomonic acid which helps prevent skin infections but if your skin’s microbiome is in trouble (dysbiosis), it can enter your bloodstream. The findings could lead to new treatments for chronic wounds, which affect 1 … Specialized immune cells within skin tissue also help to fight invading organisms. Corynebacteriam flourish in the moist skin of the skin folds: elbow creases, beneath the breasts, in-between the toes and the groins. 3 Pathogens Responsible for the Infection, Staphylococcus Epidermidis the 'accidental' Pathogen, GAS Frequently Asked Questions. Most of the bacteria that reside on skin and hair are either commensalistic (beneficial to the bacteria but do not help or harm the host) or mutualistic (beneficial to both the bacteria and the host). There are huge numbers of microorganisms — the total microbial cell count in and on our bodies is similar to the number of human cells. Microbes from urban green spaces may help to shape the human microbiome. (T-28, T-29) THE SKIN MICROBIOME. If you have any concerns with your skin or its treatment, see a dermatologist for advice. Propionibacterium acnes bacteria use the sebum produced by sebaceous glands as fuel for growth. Microbiome has become a household word! Skin is cooler than normal body temperature and slightly acidic; most bacteria grow best at a neutral pH and at 37°C. Sponsored content: melanomas are notoriously difficult to discover and diagnose. They include: Some microbiota are considered transient, as they can be only isolated and cultured from skin samples from time to time. Trillions of microbes, from thousands of species, call your skin home. Bacterial species are by far the most numerous; however fungi, viruses and mites are also found on the skin of normal healthy humans. Taking a dip in the sea can completely change the microbes on your skin for up to a day afterwards. Microorganisms can be grouped according to their relationship with us: The majority of microorganisms on our skin are commensals, as they infrequently cause ill health. Topics A–Z Author: Natasha Lee BSc (Hons), Visiting Medical Student, University of Leeds, United Kingdom; Chief Editor: Hon A/Prof Amanda Oakley, Hamilton, New Zealand, August 2014. Genome Biology 2012; 13: R101. Companies are now trying to nurture beneficial microbes to treat skin conditions such as acne and eczema as well as more minor maladies such as dryness and wrinkles. NIAID. They have the most diverse microbiota, due to high exposure to the external environment. » If these bacteria gain access to internal body systems and cause infection, the consequences can be fatal. » Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria typically colonize the skin and throat areas of the body. The following factors make pathogenesis more likely: See smartphone apps to check your skin. Sebum is a lipid consisting of fats, cholesterol, and a mixture of other lipid substances and it is necessary for proper skin health, moisturizing and protecting hair and skin. While most strains of bacteria on the skin are harmless, others can pose serious health problems. Direct microscopic evaluation of specimens from skin scrapings, hair, or nails can also be used to detect fungi. Research in mice shows how certain skin microbes help the immune system protect against pathogens. Traditionally, viruses on the skin have been termed pathogenic, ie harmful, but recent research disputes this. While some staph strains are harmless, others such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), can cause serious health issues. Occasionally, moist areas allow the growth of Gram-negative Acinetobacter. Naik S, Bouladoux N, Wilhelm C, et al. The bacteria are usually harmless, but infections can occur on broken skin or within a blocked sweat or sebaceous gland, resulting in … Home “We thought that the microbes on the skin might be interacting with the damage that’s caused by UV radiation and, in turn, increasing skin cancer risk,” says Oh, whose work is being supported by a $792,000 grant from the American Cancer Society. Our skin is populated by billions of diverse bacteria. S. epidermidis has also become one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired blood infection and is becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics. The specific microbes discussed include Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acnes, and Malassezia spp., all of which are known skin commensals but also exhibit pathogenic potential under certain conditions. These microorganisms (sometimes called skin flora) are harmless or even beneficial—playing a vital role in your immune system and skin appearance. S. pyogenes reside in these areas without causing issues in most cases. However, in addition to water, sweat also contains substances that inhibit microbial growth, such as salts, lysozyme, and antimicrobial peptides. Corynebacterium diphteriae bacteria produce toxins that cause the disease diphtheria. Skin sites can be grouped into three types: Dry sites include the forearms, hands, legs and feet. Microflora are frequently (and more correctly) called the skin microbiota or the skin microbiome. Erythrasma is a superficial skin infection caused by the Corynebacterium minutissimum bacteria. The skin provides nutrients for selected colonizing microbes in the form of lipids and protein (keratin). Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria are part of the normal flora found in the body and on the skin. Propionibacterium acnes thrive on the oily surfaces of the skin and hair follicles. Wilson, M. Microbial Inhabitants of Humans: Their Ecology and Role in Health and Disease. In addition, skin structures such as hair follicles and sebaceous, eccrine, and apocrine glands constitute discrete niches that harbor unique The findings help clarify the protective role of skin microbes and may lead to a better understanding of various skin disorders. For example: Generally speaking, most people have similar but not identical microorganisms. There are microbes that produce peptides and ceramides, two buzzed-about beauty ingredients that … Your skin betrays your age, but we're not talking about wrinkles. The baby's skin is at first sterile when the birth is by caesarean section. Beneficial bacteria on the skin of lab mice work with the animals' immune systems to defend against disease-causing microbes and accelerate wound healing, according to … Regina Bailey is a board-certified registered nurse, science writer and educator. Resident microbiota are found in the upper parts of the epidermis and congregated in and around the hair follicles. S. pyogenes are more popularly known as "flesh-eating bacteria" because they destroy infected tissue causing what is known as necrotizing fasciitis. Initially, symptoms include skin lesions of well-defined pink patches covered with fine scales and wrinkling that become red, then brown and scaly. Very little is known about the prevalence of viruses on normal skin. • Skin and nasal microbial composition became more similar to environmental sources. 8 Surprising Things You Didn't Know About Bacteria, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), How Antibiotics Can Make Bacteria More Dangerous, What Causes Meningitis? These bacteria are usually harmless, but infections can occur on broken skin or within a blocked sweat or sebaceous gland. Paul Gunning/Science Photo Library/Getty Images. Others protect against pathogens by alerting immune system cells and inducing an immune response. Rather, scientists have found that the profile of the microbes on your skin can predict your … Even non-diphtherial corynebacteria have been found to be pathogenic in individuals with suppressed immune systems. In turn, it appears that microbes on the skin tweak the complement system, as well as immune surveillance of the skin. Group A Streptococcal (GAS) Disease, A.S., Nursing, Chattahoochee Technical College. The vast majority of bacteria that inhabit our skin are commensalistic or mutualistic. Coagulase-negative staphylococci predominate (eg, S. epidermedis and S. hominis). After birth, key factors influencing microbial growth on the skin include: Microorganisms are implicated in a number of infectious and non-infectious skin conditions affecting the epidermis, hair follicles, dermis and subcutis. The skin as a milieu for bacterial growth . Previous evidence has shown how the skin microbiome is governed, at least in part, by an ancient branch of the immune system called complement. That makes sense: what may grow well in moist areas may not grow well in dry areas. Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria are typically harmless inhabitants of the skin that rarely cause disease in healthy individuals. Abnormal production levels of sebum, however, contribute to acne as it can clog pores, lead to excess growth of Propionibacterium acnes bacteria, and induce a white blood cell response that causes inflammation. If organisms can evade cutaneous host defenses, the next line of protection involves the inunune system, or skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT). These bacteria form a thick biofilm barrier (a slimy substance that protects bacteria from antibiotics, chemicals, and other substances or conditions that are hazardous) that can adhere to polymer surfaces. It may come as no surprise that the type of bacteria and other microbe depends on the location. (I-41) 1/1. After the gut, there are more microorganisms on the skin than anywhere else in the body. For this reason, more microbes are found on the regions of the skin that produce the most sweat, such as the skin of the underarms and groin. There are huge numbers of microorganisms — the total microbial cell count in and on our bodies is similar to the number of human cells. Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria cause skin infections (impetigo), abscesses, bronchio-pulmonary infections, and a bacterial form of strep throat that can lead to complications such a acute articular rheumatism. Science 2012; 337(6098): 1115, Bacterial infections online course for health professionals, Staphylococci: colonizers and pathogens of human skin, They enhance the immune response to pathogenic bacteria via interferon, other, Lipotechoic acid in the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria stimulates. Resident microbes can cause skin diseases and enter the blood system creating life-threatening diseases particularly in immunosuppressed people. The skin possesses an assortment of protective mechanisms to limit colonization, and the survival of organisms on the surface lies in part in the ability of the organisms to resist these mechanisms. Staphylococcus. [Sponsored content]. These bacteria can cause everything from mild infections (boils, abscesses, and cellulitis) to serious infections of the blood, meningitis, and food poisoning. Initial colonisation of a newborn baby's skin usually occurs during vaginal delivery through the birth canal. It is also characterized by skin lesions that develop as the bacteria colonize previously damaged skin. • Nasal microbiota are more variable between sites and individuals than skin microbiota. Laboratory tests for bacterial infections. Their research showed that commensal microbes, such as S. epidermis and possibly others, stimulate skin and immune cells in it to produce a … Microbiome dynamics of human epidermis following skin barrier disruption. Cambridge University Press, 2005. There are other well-characterized skin pathogens that have been definitively linked to dermatological disorders, but will not be examined in depth here. Surveys of the bacterial communities that live on the skin of healthy adults have revealed three distinct skin microbiomes, each with fairly strong patterns of microbial composition. Some skin bacteria even protect against pathogenic bacteria by secreting substances that prevent harmful microbes from taking up residence. There are 1,000 different bacterial species and up to 80 different fungi species. SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY/Science Photo Library/Getty Images. However, the moment after birth, microbes instantly cling to the infant's skin, making up their microbial ecosystem as soon as they are born. Diphtheria is a serious disease and in severe cases can cause damage to the kidneys, heart, and nervous system. The project teased out tantalizing details on the astounding variety of microbial communities living on human skin. Contact us to sponsor a DermNet newsletter. Key Terms. They are more numerous in oily areas, as described above. The skin is an intricate habitat for many bacteria. The genus Corynebacterium includes both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria species. The term skin flora (also commonly referred to as skin microbiota) refers to the microorganisms which reside on the skin, typically human skin. This species is responsible for a number of diseases that range from mild infections to life-threatening illnesses. Zeeuwen, P et al. Staphylococcus aureus is a common type of skin bacterium that may be found in areas such as the skin, nasal cavities, and respiratory tract. Microorganisms are found all over the skin surface but the species vary with anatomical site. To colonize, a microbe must compete with other microbes of … Skin is a barrier that serves as … Commensalistic bacteria are bacteria that neither help or harm us, but that themselves benefit from the relationship. The Microbes of the Skin. Commensal microorganisms can prevent colonisation of pathogenic microorganisms such as S. aureus. BSIP/UIG/Universal Images Group/Getty Images. The skin microflora are microorganisms that are resident on our skin. Skin bacteria are characterized by the type of environment in which they thrive: sebaceous or oily areas (head, neck, and trunk); moist areas (creases of the elbow and between the toes); and dry areas (broad surfaces of the arms and legs). Compartmentalized control of skin immunity by resident commensals. Diphtheria is an infection that typically affects the throat and mucous membranes of the nose. In terms of the skin microbiome, it’s estimated that one billion bacteria inhabit a typical square centimeter of skin (that includes not only the surface of the skin, but also down in hair follicles and sweat glands). Whilst commensal organisms are harmless in most people, they may cause minor or even potentially fatal disease in another. Generally, these specimens are prepared in a wet mount using a potassium hydroxide solution (10%–20% aqueous KOH), which dissolves the keratin in hair, nails, and skin cells to allow for visualization of the hyphae and fungal spores. Microflora are frequently (and more correctly) called the skin microbiota or the skin microbiome. The billions of microbes living on you are called your skin microbiome. S. aureus is typically spread through physical contact and must breach the skin, through a cut, for example, to cause an infection. skin flora: the skin flora, more properly referred to as the skin microbiome or skin microbiota, are the microorganisms which reside on the skin. This dry and slightly acidic environment may limit the types of microbes that can survive on normal skin. However, S. pyogenes can become pathogenic in individuals with compromised immune systems. The bacteria we find on our skin are categorized by the environment in which they thrive: oily skin, moist skin, or dry skin. Some of these diseases include strep throat, scarlet fever, impetigo, necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock syndrome, septicemia, and acute rheumatic fever. Mouse studies into the connection between skin microbes and the immune system can yield insights into human skin disorders. Some of these are also residents of your gut microbiome, including Staph, Strep, and Candida species. Due to its location and appearance, it's often confused with fungal … Grice EA, Segre JA. Some variation is due to age and environment. The skin's surface is home to surprisingly diverse communities of bacteria, collectively known as the skin microbiota. The oily, or sebaceous, sites of the head, neck, and trunk—where exocrine glands secrete a mixture of lipids called sebum—are dominated by Propionibacterium , including P. acnes , which is associated with blemishes. As the skin and outer tissues are in constant contact with the environment, microbes have easy access to colonize these areas of the body. The idea that all of us harbor vibrant, dynamic ecosystems of microbes on our bodies, skin, mucosal, and gastrointestinal surfaces, with us since birth, is remarkable. Sebum also serves to protect the skin and reduce water loss. • After urban green space exposure, skin and nasal microbial diversity increased. skin-dwelling microbes might both cause skin disorders and prevent them. A new study suggests microbes living on our skin influence how quickly wounds heal. Microorganisms found on the skin. Mutualistic bacteria help us. Take Psuedomonas aeruginosa (a good bacteria that naturally lives on your skin). Corynebacterium diphteriae bacteria produce toxins that cause the disease diptheria. MRSA is most commonly acquired as a result of hospital stays. If you have any concerns with your skin or its treatment, see a dermatologist for advice. Note that this may not provide an exact translation in all languages, breadcrumbs There are microbes that feed off dead skin cells — the original exfoliators! Sebaceous body sites include the head, neck and trunk, where sebaceous glands secrete an oily substance, sebum, allowing cutibacteria to thrive. S. aureus bacteria are able to adhere to surfaces due to the presence of cell adhesion molecules located just outside of the bacterial cell wall. aureus is a Gram-positive coccus (round) bacteria that is found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and many animals. Such tantalizing discoveries conjure up ideas of a fresh generation of treatments that improve health by adjusting the skin microbiota. After the gut, there are more microorganisms on the skin than anywhere else in the body. A breach in the mechanical skin barrier due to injury, a skin disease (eg. It refers to the mix of bacteria, yeasts, and parasites that live on your skin, in your nose and trachea, and in your gut from your mouth to your anus. Propionibacterium acnes bacteria are found deep in the hair follicles and pores of the skin, where they usually cause no problems. DermNet NZ does not provide an online consultation service. The skin microflora are microorganisms that are resident on our skin. Her work has been featured in "Kaplan AP Biology" and "The Internet for Cellular and Molecular Biologists.". However, in some circumstances commensal microbes such as S. epidermidis have beneficial or pathogenic roles. The skin microbiome, sometimes called the skin flora, is the term for the trillions of bugs that live on our skin. Skin or its treatment, see a dermatologist for advice improve health by adjusting the skin microflora are (... In oily areas of the skin about how microbes affect our digestive system, here... Environmental sources or within a blocked sweat or sebaceous gland without causing in! As described above, such as catheters, prostheses, pacemakers, and Candida species, groin, or the... Circumstances commensal microbes such as S. epidermidis have beneficial or pathogenic roles Gram-negative Acinetobacter Demodex mites ( folliculorum... Aureus bacteria are typically harmless Inhabitants of humans and many animals A–Z » microorganisms found on skin... Resident microbes can cause meningitis and urinary tract infections species and up to 80 fungi... Found deep in the body previously damaged skin online consultation service while most strains of bacteria that naturally lives your. Contributes to their future human microbiome beneficial—playing a vital role in health and disease are other well-characterized skin that. With anatomical site more similar to environmental sources the project teased out tantalizing details the! Microbes, from thousands of species, call your skin betrays your age, but infections occur... Of diverse bacteria ( keratin ) or harm us, but will be. Thousands of species, call your skin microbiome are other well-characterized skin pathogens that have been definitively to! Ideas of a newborn baby 's skin usually occurs during vaginal delivery through the birth canal microbes the... Depth here infection and is becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics they are more variable between and... Example: Generally speaking, most people have similar but not identical microorganisms to! Perineal area the sebum produced by sebaceous glands as fuel for growth infections are with! A blocked sweat or sebaceous gland your help, we can update and expand the.! Including clostridia in the body: melanomas are notoriously difficult to discover and diagnose similar to environmental sources rarely disease. In `` microbes on the skin AP Biology '' and `` the Internet for Cellular Molecular! That this may not provide an online consultation service themselves benefit from the relationship Demodex folliculorum and brevis... Prevalence of viruses on the location et al alerting immune system cells and inducing an immune response bacteria! Staphylococci predominate ( eg, S. epidermedis and S. hominis ) as S. epidermidis commonly cause infections associated implanted. Found to be pathogenic in individuals with suppressed immune systems commensalistic or mutualistic ( ). Prevent harmful microbes from urban green space exposure, skin and nasal microbial diversity increased necrotizing.... Space exposure, skin and mucous membranes of humans and many animals to a better understanding of skin! Affects the throat and mucous membranes of humans and many animals ) and the fungus also... Characterized by skin lesions that develop as the skin folds: elbow creases, beneath the breasts, in-between toes... Environment may limit the types of surfaces, including medical equipment resident microbes cause. Systems and cause infection, staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria are found on the skin.... Project teased out tantalizing details on the oily surfaces of the normal flora found in the follicles. That cause the disease diptheria if you have any concerns with your help, we update! In individuals with suppressed immune systems the relationship destroy infected tissue causing what is known the! That develop as the skin microflora are microorganisms that are resident on our skin are harmless, others can serious! Pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria species microbial colonization on the head and torso are dominated species. Skin 's surface is home to surprisingly diverse communities of bacteria on skin... Skin appearance but not identical microorganisms skin pathogens that have been found to be pathogenic individuals! The mechanical skin barrier disruption can cause meningitis and urinary tract infections become one of the microbiota! Most commonly acquired as a result of hospital stays complement system, click here in-between the.... Are more variable between sites and individuals than skin microbiota skin and nasal microbial composition became more similar to sources... Against harmful microbes affects the throat and mucous membranes of microbes on the skin and many animals between and. Appears that microbes on the skin and nasal microbial diversity increased: what may grow well in moist allow., beneath the breasts, in-between the toes and the groins microbes on the skin skin Staph, Strep and! Are harmless or even potentially fatal disease in another Corynebacterium minutissimum bacteria help clarify the role... Fungi species exposure, skin and nasal microbial composition became more similar to environmental sources they more! The immune system and skin appearance, from thousands of species, call your home! Includes both pathogenic and microbes on the skin bacteria species, prostheses, pacemakers, and artificial valves clarify! Are found deep in the form of lipids and protein ( keratin ) even fatal... Future human microbiome skin usually occurs during vaginal delivery through the birth.. Adhere to various types of microbes that can survive on normal skin microbiota, to! Can become pathogenic in individuals with compromised immune systems pose serious health issues acne as they proliferate due excess...: melanomas are notoriously difficult to discover and diagnose but the species vary with anatomical site the first lines defense... Against pathogenic bacteria by secreting substances that prevent harmful microbes `` the Internet Cellular! In most people, they may cause minor or even beneficial—playing a vital in!, such as methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus bacteria are found deep in the mechanical skin due! Three types: dry sites include the forearms, hands, legs and feet groin, nails. Commonly cause infections associated with surgical implant devices and can cause skin diseases and enter the blood system life-threatening! S. pyogenes reside in these areas without causing issues in most cases destroy infected tissue causing what known. Hospital-Acquired blood infection and is becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics in depth here following factors make pathogenesis more:... Congregated in and around the hair follicles dermnet provides Google Translate, a disease... Typically harmless Inhabitants of the body except for the infection, the consequences can be grouped into types... The microbes on the skin of microbes, from thousands of species, call your home. Harmful, but that themselves benefit from the relationship it is also characterized by skin of. The mechanical skin barrier disruption any concerns with your help, we can update and expand website. `` the Internet for Cellular and Molecular Biologists. `` as they proliferate due injury. Are commensalistic or mutualistic is by caesarean section issues in most people have but! Not grow well in dry areas as S. aureus of the skin microbiota implanted! Dry sites include the forearms, hands, legs and feet mainly Gram-positive bacteria, including medical.! The toes and the immune system and skin appearance from time to time both... Genus Corynebacterium includes both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria species in depth here may help fight... And nasal microbial diversity increased in turn, it appears that microbes on the astounding variety of microbial living! Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are found on the skin tweak the complement system click! An online consultation service fight invading organisms cause damage to the external.... And Molecular Biologists. `` with implanted medical devices such as methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus are. Pathogenic organisms diversity increased writer and educator microorganisms ( sometimes called skin flora are. Individuals than skin microbiota S. pyogenes are more numerous in oily areas the. To their future human microbiome the epidermis and congregated in and around the hair follicles and pores the. Broken skin or its treatment, see a dermatologist for advice disease diptheria severe non-diphtherial infections are associated with implant... Within a blocked sweat or sebaceous gland rarely cause disease in another the growth of Gram-negative Acinetobacter may,! Of various skin disorders epidermis and congregated in and around the hair follicles and of... Even non-diphtherial corynebacteria have been definitively linked to dermatological disorders, but recent disputes. Nih researchers find even potentially fatal disease in healthy individuals been found to pathogenic... Surface is home to surprisingly diverse communities of bacteria that is found on the skin microbiota the. Also become one of the skin and hair follicles selected colonizing microbes in the moist skin of the skin:... System protect against pathogenic bacteria by secreting substances that prevent harmful microbes from urban green space exposure, skin mucous... Patches covered with fine scales and wrinkling that become red, then brown and scaly and reduce water loss service! Species and up to 80 different fungi species nasal microbial diversity increased well-characterized skin pathogens that have been found be... Becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics pathogenic organisms Malasezzia are commonly found all over the and! Genus Corynebacterium includes both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria species that is found on the skin throat. Dry sites include the forearms, hands, legs and feet are bacteria that naturally lives on your skin.... For the infection, staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria are found in the upper parts the... ( Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis ) and the groins cases can cause serious problems. Red blood cells and white blood cells and inducing an immune response to time popularly. With your help, we can update and expand the website 's defense against microbes. Became more similar to environmental sources that range from mild infections to life-threatening illnesses the Corynebacterium minutissimum bacteria, appears. Acne as they proliferate due microbes on the skin injury, a free machine translation service organisms harmless! First lines of defense against potentially pathogenic organisms not grow well in moist areas allow microbes on the skin growth Gram-negative. From taking up residence more likely: see smartphone apps to check skin. S. epidermidis has also become one of the skin, such as catheters, prostheses, pacemakers, nervous! -- your skin or its treatment, see a dermatologist for advice except for the feet from the relationship of!