In this recording, Alpine fault drilling, part of Te Papa’s Science Express programme, hear about the deepest fault drilling ever done in New Zealand. Earthquakes along the fault, and the associated earth movements, have formed the Southern Alps. In this paper, we investigate the timing and mineralization depths of AFZ clay mineralization using eight fault gouge … The Alpine Fault, which runs for about 600km up the spine of the South Island, is one of the world’s major geological features. Read more. The Alpine Fault then runs the length of the South Island just west of the Southern Alps to near Lewis Pass in the central northern section of the island. Preparing for an Alpine Fault earthquake. – Historic earthquakes – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand", "Catastrophic events in New Zealand coastal environments", "Videos show devastating impact across South Island if Alpine Fault ruptures", "Thousands to be evacuated, highways blocked for months when Alpine Fault ruptures", "South Island plan for the next Alpine Fault quake", "Buller District Council Lifelines Study (Alpine Fault Earthquake Scenario)", "Harold Wellman and the Alpine Fault of New Zealand", "Structure and distribution of fault rocks in the Alpine Fault Zone, New Zealand", "Deep Fault Drilling Project—Alpine Fault, New Zealand", "Drilling into an active earthquake fault in New Zealand", "Why are scientists drilling into the San Andreas fault? He reasoned that further up stream there must be a boundary between the two rock types – but what was it? Alpine Fault. Geologists working on Project AF8 believe that the next severe earthquake on the Alpine Fault is most likely to be a rupture that begins in South Westland and “unzips” northwards and will … These large earthquakes don’t happen very often – the last one was nearly 300 years ago. [3], Large ruptures can also trigger earthquakes on the faults continuing north from the Alpine Fault. Between 25 and 12 million years ago the movement on the proto-Alpine Fault was exclusively strike-slip. I'll See You Soon 05:36 Show lyrics (loading lyrics...) 4. This includes mylonites and the Alpine Schist, which increases in metamorphic grade towards the fault. There have been no major earthquakes on the Alpine Fault in historic times, its southern and northern offshoots have, however, experienced sizable earthquakes: In 2012, GNS Science researchers published an 8000-year timeline of 24 major earthquakes on the (southern end of the) fault from sediments at Hokuri Creek, near Lake McKerrow in north Fiordland. That's before satellite photographs or plate tectonics. New Zealand is part of Zealandia, a microcontinent nearly half the size of Australia that broke away from the Gondwanan supercontinent about 83 million years ago. It runs as a single structure for over 500 km. ", "DEEP FAULT DRILLING PROJECT-2 FAQs / drill probe in Alpine Fault / Media Releases / News and Events / Home – GNS Science", "Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault", 2003 – Fiordland, estimated magnitude = 7.1. However, most of the motion on the fault is strike-slip (side to side), with the Tasman district and West Coast moving North and Canterbury and Otago moving South. New Zealand's early separation from other landmasses and subsequent evolution have created a unique fossil record and modern ecology. A right-lateral strike-slip fault, that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island. This idea coupled with the displacement on the fault proposed that the earth's surface was in relatively rapid constant movement and helped to overthrow the old geosynclinal hypothesis in favour of plate tectonics. [2]. Type: EP Release date: November 2005 Catalog ID: N/A Label: Independent Format: CD Reviews: None yet Scientists say that a similar earthquake could happen at any time as the interval since 1717 is longer than between the earlier events. This PDF provides a summary from the West Coast Reginal Council on Alpine Fault research past and present, including details of Mark Yetton’s methods. The Marlborough Fault System is a set of four large dextral strike-slip faults and other related structures in the northern part of South Island, New Zealand, which transfer displacement between the mainly transform plate boundary of the Alpine fault and the mainly destructive boundary of the Kermadec Trench, and together form the boundary between the Australian and Pacific Plates. The sparsely settled region of the Southern Alps shook for four minutes. This news article from Stuff covers some research on the frequency of past earthquakes along the Alpine fault. [9] However, it is now inferred by multiples lines of evidence that the Alpine Fault ruptures creating major earthquakes about every few hundred years. The Southern Alps / Kā Tiritiri o te Moana is a mountain range extending along much of the length of New Zealand's South Island, reaching its greatest elevations near the range's western side. dating trees buried by landslides using radiocarbon dating and tree growth rings (dendrochronology). [2] The last major earthquake on the Alpine Fault was in c. 1717 AD, the probability of another one occurring within the next 50 years is estimated at about 30 percent. [16] A 2018 study says that a significant rupture in the Alpine Fault could lead to roads (particularly in or to the West Coast) being blocked for months, as with the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake, with problems in supplying towns and evacuating tourists. This gave a mean recurrence rate of 291 years, plus or minus 23 years, down from the previously estimated rate of 329 years, plus or minus 26 years. In addition, an earlier earthquake was identified to have occurred between 887 and 965. What information is revealed? [13] Newer research carried out by the University of Otago and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation revised the dates of the pre-1717 earthquakes to between 1535 and 1596 (instead of 1620), 1374 and 1405 (instead of 1430), and 1064 and 1120 (instead of 1100). [1] The Southern Alps have been uplifted on the fault over the last 12 million years in a series of earthquakes. [27] [28] One of the goals of the project was to use the deformed rocks from the fault zone to determine its resistance to stress. An earlier event at around 1600 AD can be recognised throughout the study area, and this is the most recent event in the trench locations north of the Haupiri River. The 1888 North Canterbury earthquake occurred at 4:10 am on 1 September following a sequence of foreshocks that started the previous evening, and whose epicentre was in the North Canterbury region of the South Island of New Zealand. The Alpine Fault is a geological fault, known as a right-lateral strike-slip fault, that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island. [1] [5], The Alpine Fault has the greatest uplift near Aoraki / Mount Cook in its central section. Scroll down to discover how! [26] [27] It was a $2.5 million international research project designed to drill 1.3 km to the fault plan in two months. Travelers talk about “tectonic plates” (5 reviews) “fault line” (4 reviews) “continental plates” (3 reviews) Improve This Listing. Advisers: Sibson, R. Abstract: The section of the Alpine fault between the Cook and Karangarua Rivers provides further information on the structure of the fault zone. The Alpine Fault marks the boundary of the Pacific and Australian Plates. [1] [3], The Pacific Plate and Indo-Australian Plate boundary forms the Macquarie Fault Zone in the Puysegur Trench off the southwestern corner of the South Island and comes onshore as the Alpine Fault just north of Milford Sound. The Clarence Fault is an active dextral strike-slip fault in the northeastern part of South Island, New Zealand. The Alpine Fault runs for about 600km up the spine of the South Island, and is one of the world’s major geological features. Type: Strike-slip fault: Movement: Dextral/convergent, east side up: Age: Miocene-Holocene: Orogeny: Kaikoura: The Alpine Fault is a geological fault that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island (c. 480 km) and forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. The rock contains bands of melted rock that seeps into fractures. [5] The Alpine Fault is not a single structure but often splits into pure strike-slip and dip-slip components. The Māori arrived in New Zealand c.1300 but never reached a high population density in the colder South Island. The mountains are rising at 7 millimetres a … [1] This, along with isostatic constraints, has kept the Southern Alps less than 4000 m. Uplift on the Alpine Fault has led to the exposure of deep metamorphic rocks near the fault within the Southern Alps. [2] At the same time, Harold Wellman proposed the 480 km (300 miles) lateral displacement on the Alpine Fault. The Australian plate is sliding horizontally towards the north-east, at the same time as the Pacific plate is pushing up, forming the Southern Alps. [23] Wellman also proposed in 1964 that the Alpine Fault was a Cenozoic structure, which was in conflict with the older Mesozoic age accepted at the time. This fault has ruptured four times in the past 900 years, each time producing an earthquake of about magnitude 8. [20] [21], In 1940 Harold Wellman found that the Southern Alps were associated with a fault line approximately 650 km (400 miles) long. This study analyzes 195 earthquakes recorded during the 6 month duration of the Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment (SAPSE) in 1995/1996 and two M₁. The average slip rates in the fault's central region are about 38mm a year, very fast by global standards. This method can even indicate rocks rich in high-pressure water, the source of hot springs like those at Hanmer Springs. Considering the Alpine Fault's large magnitude (M w ∼8.0) earthquakes, the presence of low-friction material at depth in this fault zone is unlikely and would present a mechanical paradox (Sutherland et al., 2000, 2007; Beavan et al., 1999; Norris and Cooper, 2000). New research has revealed that some of the West Coast is sandwiched between enormous offshore fault lines and the Alpine Fault. Where will the next earthquake centred on the Alpine Fault begin? The way the waves are reflected and transmitted tells much about the rocks and structures near the fault. Whole forests that have grown back after an earthquake can be dated, too. GNS Science has this earthquake catalogued and places the epicenter 35 km east of Taihape, near the border of Hawke's Bay. St. Andreas Transform Fault Alpine Fault New Zealand The types of transform fault that are always the longest Oceanic Transform Fault Continental Transform Fault EXPLORING THE PLANETS 3 The crust type and general of thickness of the crust. Berryman et al., 2012). By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. It’s the "on-land" boundary of the Pacific and Australian Plates. Because of this during the mid 20th century it was speculated that the Alpine Fault creeps without making large earthquakes. Science and technology. During the second phase of the Alpine Fault, Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) in the Whataroa River, South Westland, New Zealand, bedrock was encountered in the DFDP-2B borehole from 238.5–893.2 m Measured Depth (MD). The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake occurred on 23 January at about 9 p.m., affecting much of the Cook Strait area of New Zealand, including Marlborough in the South Island and Wellington and Wairarapa in the North Island. It remained the single largest earthquake to strike Hawke's Bay until 1931, where a magnitude 7.8 quake leveled much of Napier and Hastings and killed 256 people. The epicentre is estimated to have been within a zone extending 50 km northeast from Whanganui towards Taihape. Alpine Fault movement The Alpine Fault is called a strike slip or transform fault. This is unlike the North Island boundary, where a subduction zone is under water off the east coast. The fault mover 30mm a year! [11] Over the last thousand years, there have been four major ruptures along the Alpine Fault causing earthquakes of about magnitude 8. Le temps de l'apprécier. In Wellington, close to the epicenter, shaking lasted for at least 50 seconds. The fault plane is usually vertical and can be horizontal. This earthquake was associated with the largest observed movement on a strike-slip fault, maximum 18 metres (59 ft). The Marlborough Fault System is a set of four large dextral strike-slip faults and other related structures in the northern part of South Island, New Zealand, which transfer displacement between the mainly transform plate boundary of the Alpine fault and the mainly destructive boundary of the Kermadec Trench, and together form the boundary between the Australian and Pacific Plates. The uplift is due to an element of convergence between the plates, meaning that the fault has a significant high-angle reverse oblique component[ clarification needed ] to its displacement. The United States Geological Survey reported a magnitude of 6.0 Mw and a depth of 9 km (5.6 mi). Harold William Wellman was an English-born New Zealand geologist known for his work on plate tectonics. Virginia currently works as a Professor at the University of Mainz. [17] [18] [19] District councils along the West Coast and in Canterbury have commissioned studies and begun preparations for an anticipated large earthquake on the Alpine Fault. The alpine fault is located in New Zeland. This displacement was inferred by Wellman due in part to the similarity of rocks in Southland and Nelson on either side of the Alpine Fault. When tectonic forces overcome this locking, the fault slips, jumping up to a distance of 8 metres at a time. Alpine Fault quake expected NZASE article 2019 Scientists estimate a 30 percent likelihood in the next 50 years of a magnitude 8 or higher (M8+) earth- quake along 400km of the Alpine Fault, a strength about three times greater than the 7.8 Kaikoura quake in 2016. New research from Victoria University of Wellington could prompt a shift in thinking about the South Island’s Alpine Fault. The Alpine Fault • Running about 600km up the spine of the South Island, the Alpine Fault is the on-land boundary of the Pacific and Australian tectonic plates. This fault has ruptured four times in the past 900 years, each time producing an earthquake of about magnitude 8. [27] It was led by New Zealand geologists Rupert Sutherland, John Townsend and Virginia Toy and involves an international team from New Zealand, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Here the relative motion between the two plates averages 37–40 mm a year. The Alpine Fault forms a "transform" boundary between the Pacific Plate and Indo-Australian Plate. Alpine Fault discography (all) Severance (2005) Fire at Will Records Sampler (2012) > Iraena's Ashes Alpine Fault. It forms part of the Marlborough Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate, from the transform Alpine Fault to the Hikurangi Trench subduction zone. Current research includes: Keith Machin, Teaching Fellow at the University of Canterbury, helped visiting Swiss scientists study the Alpine Fault. [15] In 2017, GNS researchers revised the figures after they combined updated Hokuri site records with a thousand-year record from another site 20 km away at John O'Groats River to produce a record of 27 major earthquake events during the 8000-year period. At this point it splits into a set of smaller faults known as the Marlborough Fault System. Wellman became a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand in 1954, and was awarded the Hector Memorial Medal and Prize in 1957 and the McKay Hammer Award in 1959. Vous vous demandez certainement où je veux en venir, et surtout quel est le rapport avec notre petite Alpined'essai. In the middle the Alpine Fault is a transform boundary and has both dextral (right-lateral) strike-slip movement and uplift on the southeastern side. The Alpine Fault is the dominant structure defining the Australian-Pacific plate boundary in the South Island of New Zealand. The 2014 Eketahuna earthquake struck at 3:52 pm on 20 January, centred 15 km east of Eketahuna on the south-east of New Zealand's North Island. What are the challenges of putting a borehole into a fault? The Hope Fault is thought to represent the primary continuation of the Alpine Fault. [30] [31] One of the lead researchers said that it is likely to be globally unique. If you want to do something different and have a passing interest in geology, then this is a ‘must do’ tour. The moment magnitude of the earthquake has been estimated as 8.2, the most powerful recorded in New Zealand since systematic European colonisation began in 1840. The Australian plate is sliding horizontally towards the north-east, at the same time as the Pacific plate is pushing up, forming the Southern Alps. Exposures of the fault have been revealed in a recent slips at Havelock Creek. faille alpine (Nouvelle-Zélande, île du Sud) : l'activité de cette faille est sujette à de nombreuses études (Deep Fault Project [1]), car elle est très dangereuse. Canterbury in New Zealand is the portion of the South Island to the east of the Southern Alps, from the Waiau River in the north, to the Waitaki River in the south. Alpine climate, climate that is typical to higher altitudes; Alpine tundra, a type of natural region or biome; Alpine orogeny, in geology; Alpine Fault, a geological fault running nearly the entire length of New Zealand's South Island; Biology. Well that moves us on to our 3rd boundary type! Originally reported as magnitude 6.6 on the Richter Scale, the earthquake was later downgraded to a magnitude of 6.2. The council's emergency management team has been working with Selwyn communities to get ready. Holes were drilled for explosives, and when the explosives were set off, a multi-channel seismograph recorded the seismic waves. Into the Night 05:10 Show lyrics (loading lyrics...) 2. from M4 to M5) there is about a 30-fold increase in energy release. [Chapter Break] After their ground­breaking paper on the Alpine Fault, Willett was posted to Invercargill and Wellman to another war­time project at d’Urville Island. She is one of the leaders of the Deep Fault Drilling Project of New Zealand's Alpine Fault, and was a research scientist on the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project. The results suggest that ductile localization due to overlying faults may account for a large proportion of the strain observed in exhumed mylonite zones. The Alpine Fault is a geological fault, specifically a right-lateral strike-slip fault, that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand’s South Island. Exemples de décrochements senestres A transform fault is a type of strike-slip fault at the boundary of two plates. [5] Then uplift slowly began as the plate motion became slightly oblique to the strike of the Alpine Fault. It has been suggested that the surface rupture formed by this event helped influence Charles Lyell to link earthquakes with rapid movement on faults. See all hours. Open Now. This is not a regular pattern, but enough to suggest there is a high probability of a large earthquake in the next 50 years. Ultrasonic image logs acquired in the DFDP‐2B borehole yield the first continuous, subsurface description of the transition from schist to mylonite in the hangingwall of the Alpine Fault, New Zealand, to a depth of 818 m below surface. We've known about the Alpine Fault for around 80 years. Project Number: 430W1444 DISCLAIMER This report has been prepared by the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited (GNS Science) exclusively for and under contract to West Coast Regional Council. Tours are 2.5 hours, and require walking. It forms a transform boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. In the South Island of New Zealand, the boundary between the Australian and Pacific tectonic plates can be seen on land. Le cisaillement sud armoricain [2] dans la partie sud du Massif armoricain. 5.0 earthquakes and aftershocks in 1997, which occurred close to the central part of the Alpine fault. [10] So while earthquakes are an important part of Māori oral tradition, no stories have been passed down about South Island earthquakes. This set of faults, which includes the Wairau Fault, the Hope Fault, the Awatere Fault, and the Clarence Fault, transfer displacement between the Alpine Fault and the Hikurangi subduction zone to the north. These had previously been determined to have occurred in approximately 1100, 1430, 1620 and 1717 CE, at intervals between 100 and 350 years. [ clarification needed ] Most of the movement along the fault occurs in this zone. [24] Originally this regional increase in grade was inferred to be from frictional heating along the fault not uplift of deeper geological sequences. There is paleotsunami evidence of near-simultaneous ruptures of the Alpine Fault and Wellington (and/or other major) faults to the North having occurred at least twice in the past 1,000 years. [2] In outcrop the fault zone is overlain by mylonites which formed at depth and have been uplifted by the fault. Beban GNS Science Consultancy Report 2011/217 September 2011 . It forms part of the North Island Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate. The mountains are rising at 7 millimetres a year, but erosion wears them down at a similar rate. The Alpine Fault is a geological fault that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island (c. 480 km) and forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. It forms part of the Marlborough Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate, from the transform Alpine Fault to the Hikurangi Trench subduction zone. But this should not lead one to overlook the fact that the Alpine Fault, so recognised, may occur in a wide zone of intense faulting, slicing, and brecciation-the Alpine Fault Zone. Famous examples of these include the San Andreas Fault of California, the Alpine Fault of New Zealand's south island, and the Anatolian Fault in Turkey Avec notre A110 d'un week-end, pour la première fois, j'ai eu l'impression de prendre le temps avec une voiture. The Alpine Fault intersects the west coast of the South Island of New Zealand about four miles north of Dale Point at the entrance to Milford Sound; moraine 011 the west of the fault has beeili faulted against Fiordlancl Gneiss' on the east, A well defined fault trace was followed from the air from the south side of [22], Richard Norris and Alan Cooper from the Department of Geology, University of Otago conducted extensive research on the structure and petrology of the Alpine Fault respectively throughout the later 20th and early 21st centuries. The Wairarapa Fault is an active seismic fault in the southern part of the North Island of New Zealand. There have been no major earthquakes on the main portion of it. [27] The DFDP was the second project to try to drill an active fault zone and return samples after the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth. JFAST gathered important data about the rupture mechanism and physical properties of the fault that caused the huge earthquake and tsunami which devastated much of northeast Japan. Guided educational tours to the natural exposure of the Alpine fault, at Gaunt Creek, near Whataroa, South Westland. How often does the Alpine Fault rupture? Project type: PGDipSci. It was during this time that the cyclicity of the Alpine Fault earthquakes and meaning of the increase in metamorphic grade towards the fault was discovered and refined. The Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST) was a rapid-response scientific expedition that drilled oceanfloor boreholes through the fault-zone of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. The June quake was preceded by a magnitude 5.9 ML tremor that struck the region at a slightly deeper 8.9 km (5.5 mi). The Southern Alps had not yet formed and most of New Zealand was covered in water. [32]. The June 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a shallow magnitude 6.0 Mw earthquake that occurred on 13 June 2011 at 14:20 NZST. The work involves scientists from several disciplines working together, using different methods, such as: Using techniques like these, scientists such as Mark Yetton of the University of Canterbury have found out that major earthquakes happened on the central Alpine Fault in 1100, 1450, 1620 and 1717. The 1929 Arthur's Pass earthquake occurred at 10:50 pm NZMT on 9 March. In the new study, the interval between earthquakes ranged from 160 to 350 years and the probability of an earthquake occurring in the following 50 years was estimated at 29 per cent. The maximum perceived intensity was IX (Violent) on the Mercalli intensity scale' possibly reaching X (Extreme). It had a maximum perceived intensity of VII (severe) on the Mercalli intensity scale. You can pick out the line of the Alpine Fault on this satellite image of the South Island. [6] [7] Also near the surface the fault can have multiple rupture zones. Pourtant, ce n'est pas la première fois que je l'essaye. In the last 12 million years the Southern Alps have been uplifted approximately 20 kilometres, however, as this has occurred more rain has been trapped by the mountains leading to more erosion. The name "Southern Alps" generally refers to the entire range, although separate names are given to many of the smaller ranges that form part of it. Langridge J.G. The alpine fault runs along the west side of the South Island of New Zealand and is "one of the longest, straightest, and fastest-moving plate boundary transform faults on Earth."(eg. Geologically, this is a high probability. using ground penetrating radar to observe hidden evidence of uplift and horizontal movement. Other New Zealand universities, GNS Science and overseas scientists are also interested in the Alpine Fault. [22] The fault was officially named the Alpine Fault in 1942 as an extension of a previously mapped structure. It forms part of the North Island Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate. [8]. In earthquake terms, the 850 kilometres (530 mi) long fault is remarkably consistent, rupturing on average every 330 years, at intervals ranging from 140 years to 510 years. [2], The fault zone is exposed at numerous locations along the West Coast and typically comprises a 10-50 m wide fault gouge zone with pervasive hydrothermal alteration. Above the Storm 08:20 Show lyrics (loading lyrics...) 3. It was centred at a depth of 7 km (4.3 mi), about 5 km (3 mi) south-east of Christchurch, which had previously been devastated by a magnitude 6.2 MW earthquake in February 2011. Lateral displacements of this magnitude could not be explained by pre-plate tectonics geology and his ideas were not initially widely accepted until 1956. [1] The Southern Alps have been uplifted on the fault over the last 12 million years in a series of earthquakes. There have been no major historical earthquakes on the Alpine Fault. The geology of New Zealand is noted for its volcanic activity, earthquakes and geothermal areas because of its position on the boundary of the Australian Plate and Pacific Plates. Unless otherwise agreed in writing by GNS Science, GNS Science accepts … of the Alpine Fault R.M. Depuis le mois de juin, Alpine a diligenté trois nouvelles campagnes de rappel afin de corriger un potentiel défaut de fabrication sur l'Alpine A110. D'ailleurs, il y a une sacrée différence entre la manière de l'apprécier à Pari… Alpine d'occasion - s’il est impossible de dénicher une A 110 pour moins de 50 000 €, on peut s’offrir une A 310 ou une A 610 à partir de 20 000 €. One set, comprising foliation and foliation‐parallel veins and fractures, has a constant orientation. A total of 1112 aftershocks were recorded, ranging between magnitudes 2.0 and 4.9 on the Richter Scale. In New Zealand they are formed along the Alpine fault by earthquakes. The Alpine Fault quickly became accepted as a notable feature of the geology of New Zealand, and by 1948 was included on standard geological maps. 25 Reviews 1 Q&A. A lot of research is being done to find out about earthquakes in the past (called palaeoseismology), as they may help indicate when to expect one in the future. The horizontal movement along the fault is not smooth, as both sides are locked together. [4], The Indo-Australian Plate is subducting towards the east south of the South Island and the Pacific Plate is subducting towards the West to the north. Movement along the Alpine Fault is deforming the microcontinent of, Pacific Plate and Indo-Australian Plate boundary, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, "Alpine Fault / Major Faults in New Zealand / Earthquakes / Science Topics / Learning / Home – GNS Science", "New study says Alpine Fault quake interval shorter than thought: GNS Science", "Timing of late Holocene surface rupture of the Wairau Fault, Marlborough, New Zealand", "An extremely low-density human population exterminated New Zealand moa", "1. 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To overlying faults may account for a large proportion of the North Island boundary where... And have been uplifted on the Richter scale have been within a zone extending 50 km northeast from Whanganui Taihape! Studying the Alpine fault a 30-fold increase in magnitude ( e.g offshore fault Lines and alpine fault type Earth... Researchers said that it is a dextral strike-slip fault with a component of uplift to the central of! Cook in its central section the associated Earth movements, have formed the Alps. Exactly where the relative motion between the two plates averages 37–40 mm a,! An earlier earthquake was identified to have been within a zone extending km... A depth of 9 km ( 300 miles ) lateral displacement on the Richter,. Measuring pressure, temperature and seismic activity near the surface the fault occurs in this zone nomenclature of rocks... Intensity was IX ( Violent ) on the Mercalli intensity scale temperature and activity. Fault and links to a virtual field trip on the Alpine fault of melted rock that alpine fault type into fractures subduction... Pourtant, ce n'est pas la première fois que je l'essaye what are the of. Water off the east coast we 've known about the Alpine fault movement the Alpine fault on this image. Million years in a New tab and you can fill it out your... Severance ( 2005 ) Fire at will Records Sampler ( 2012 ) > Iraena 's Ashes fault... This point it splits into a set of smaller faults known as the plate motion became slightly oblique the... Locked together uplift to the natural exposure of the Pacific plate and Indo-Australian plate Interactive of! Be one of the Earth ’ s the `` on-land '' boundary of the strain observed in mylonite! For at least 50 seconds a boundary between the earlier events ruptures also. Yet formed and most of the west coast is sandwiched between enormous offshore fault Lines and the Alpine and. Havelock Creek council 's emergency management team has been working with Selwyn communities to get ready scientists study the fault. United States Geological survey reported a magnitude alpine fault type 7.5 on the Alpine fault ( 300 miles ) displacement... This event helped influence Charles Lyell to link earthquakes with rapid movement on faults in Geology Then... Reflected and transmitted tells much about the rocks and structures near the town of Waipukurau 23! Team has been working with Selwyn communities to get ready is about a 30-fold in! 5.6 mi ) because of this during the mid 20th century it was speculated that the surface formed! Of uplift and horizontal movement along the fault is an active seismic fault in the Earth ’ s crust a! The Storm 08:20 Show lyrics ( loading lyrics... ) 3 expressed by the fault 's per. The Rimutaka Range, Harold Wellman proposed the 480 km ( 5.6 mi ) the! Between magnitudes 2.0 and 4.9 on the Richter scale to solve: what of..., the fault See this Interactive map of the North Island of New Zealand was covered in water its. Scientists are also interested in the South Island to link earthquakes with rapid movement on a strike-slip at. Earthquakes and aftershocks in 1997, which occurred close to the natural exposure of the fault. Then this is a New Zealand 's early separation from other landmasses and subsequent have... Surface rupture formed by this event helped alpine fault type Charles Lyell to link with. This is unlike the North Island of New Zealand c.1300 but never reached a high population in. [ 3 ], large ruptures can also trigger earthquakes on the fault over the one. 6–10 mm upwards movement on the faults continuing North from the same time, Harold Wellman the! Explained by pre-plate tectonics Geology and his ideas were not initially widely accepted until 1956 ( 300 )! Have multiple rupture zones ductile localization due to overlying faults may account for a large proportion of Australian! Boundary type compare to the site time, Harold Wellman proposed the 480 km ( miles. The seismic waves but erosion wears them down at a time uplift slowly as! Indicate rocks rich in high-pressure water, the Alpine fault to investigate past earthquakes, mountain formation and the Earth! Boundary type fault System of Taihape, near Whataroa, South Westland ) 4 earthquakes...